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薨 Beading Napoleon: A Life essay ꗤ By Andrew Roberts 믽

薨 Beading Napoleon: A Life essay ꗤ By Andrew Roberts 믽 薨 Beading Napoleon: A Life essay ꗤ By Andrew Roberts 믽 IntroductionNapoleon Bonaparte was the founder of modern France and one of the great conquerors of history He came to power through a military coup only six years after entering the country as a penniless political refugee As First Consul and later Emperor, he almost won hegemony in Europe, but for a series of coalitions specifically designed to bring him down Although his conquests ended in defeat and ignominious imprisonment, over the course of his short but eventful life he fought sixty battles and lost only seven For any general, of any age, this was an extraordinary record Yet his greatest and most lasting victories were those of his institutions, which put an end to the chaos of the French Revolution and cemented its guiding principle of equality before the law Today the Napoleonic Code forms the basis of law in Europe and aspects of it have been adopted by forty countries spanning every continent except Antarctica Napoleons bridges, reservoirs, canals and sewers remain in use throughout France The French foreign ministry sits above the stone quays he built along the Seine, and the Cour des Comptes still checks public spending accounts than two centuries after he founded it The Lgion dHonneur, an honor he introduced to take the place of feudal privilege, is highly coveted Frances top secondary schools, many of them founded by Napoleon, provide excellent education and his Conseil dtat still meets every Wednesday to vet laws Even if Napoleon hadnt been one of the great military geniuses of history, he would still be a giant of the modern era.The leadership skills he employed to inspire his men have been adopted by other leaders over the centuries, yet never equaled except perhaps by his great devotee Winston Churchill Some of his techniques he learned from the ancientsespecially his heroes Alexander the Great and Julius Caesarand others he conceived himself in response to the circumstances of the day The fact that his army was willing to follow him even after the retreat from Moscow, the battle of Leipzig and the fall of Paris testifies to his capacity to make ordinary people feel that they were capable of doing extraordinary, history making deeds A unexpected aspect of Napoleons personality that also came out strongly over the course of researching this book was his fine sense of humour All too often historians have taken seriously remarks that were clearly intended as humorous Napoleon was constantly joking to his family and entourage, even in the most dire situations Scores of examples pit this book.Napoleons love affair with Josephine has been presented all too often in plays, novels and movies as a Romeo and Juliet story in fact, it was anything but He had an overwhelming crush on her, but she didnt love him, at least in the beginning, and was unfaithful from the very start of their marriage When he learned of her infidelities two years later while on campaign in the middle of the Egyptian desert, he was devastated He took a mistress in Cairo in part to protect himself from accusations of cuckoldry, which were far dangerous for a French general of the era than those of adultery Yet he forgave Josephine when he returned to France, and they started off on a decade of harmonious marital and sexual contentment, despite his taking a series of mistresses Josephine remained faithful and even fell in love with him When he decided to divorce for dynastic and geostrategic reasons, Josephine was desolate but they remained friendly Napoleons second wife, Marie Louise, would also be unfaithful to him, with an Austrian general Napoleon had defeated on the battlefield but clearly couldnt match in bed.Napoleon was able to compartmentalize his life to quite a remarkable degree, much so even than most statesmen and great leaders He could entirely close off one part of his mind to what was going on in the rest of it he himself likened it to being able to open and close drawers in a cupboard On the eve of battle, as aides de camp were arriving and departing with orders to his marshals and reports from his generals, he could dictate his thoughts on the establishment of a girls school for the orphans of members of the Lgion dHonneur, and shortly after having captured Moscow he set down the regulations governing the Comdie Franaise No detail about his empire was too minute for his restless, questing energy The prefect of a department would be instructed to stop taking his young mistress to the opera an obscure country priest would be reprimanded for giving a bad sermon on his birthday a corporal told he was drinking too much a demi brigade that it could stitch the words Les Incomparables in gold onto its standard He was one of the most unrelenting micromanagers in history, but this obsession with details did not prevent him from radically transforming the physical, legal, political and cultural landscape of Europe.More books have been written with Napoleon in the title than there have been days since his death in 1821 Admittedly, many have titles like Napoleons Haemorrhoids and Napoleons Buttons, but there are several thousand comprehensive, cradle to grave biographies too Every one of them published since 1857 relied upon the correspondence that Napoleon III published as a tribute to his uncle We now know that this was shamefully bowdlerized and distorted for propaganda purposes letters that Napoleon never wrote were included while embarrassing or compromising ones that he did write were passed over In all the compendium included only two thirds of his total output.In one of the great publishing endeavours of the twenty first century, the Fondation Napolon in Paris has since 2004 been publishing every one of the than 33,000 letters that Napoleon signed The culmination of this immense project demands nothing less than a complete re evaluation of this extraordinary man Napoleon represented the Enlightenment on horseback His letters show a charm, humour and capacity for candid self appraisal He could lose his tempervolcanically so on occasionbut usually with some cause Above all he was no totalitarian dictator, as many have been eager to suggest he may have established an unprecedentedly efficient surveillance system, but he had no interest in controlling every aspect of his subjects lives Nor did he want the lands he conquered to be ruled directly by Frenchmen He believed that one can control foreign lands only by winning over the population and sought accordingly to present himself in terms that would make him sympathetic to the locals, feigning sympathy for their religion as a means to an end It is notable that his strategies varied considerably in Italy, Egypt and Germany In the one instance where this was not the caseHaitihe later acknowledged that the brutality of his policies had compromised his effectiveness and mused with foresight that one could not keep people subject for long at a great distance Above all he hoped to modernize Europe.They seek to destroy the Revolution by attacking my person, he said after the failure of the royalist assassination plot of 1804 I will defend it, for I am the Revolution His characteristic egotism aside, Napoleon was right He personified the best parts of the French Revolution, the ones that have survived and infused European life ever since Although the Terror had finished five years before he grabbed power, the Jacobins were a powerful force who could always return Similarly, a royalist restoration which would have wiped away the benefits of the Revolution was also possible Instead, the fifteen year rule of Napoleon saved the best aspects of the Revolution, discarded the worst and ensured that even when the Bourbons were restored they could not return to the Ancien Rgime.The ideas that underpin our modern worldmeritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances and so onwere championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon To them he added rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire At the same time he dispensed with the absurd revolutionary calendar of ten day weeks, the theology of the Cult of the Supreme Being, the corruption and cronyism of the Directory and the hyper inflation that had characterized the dying days of the Republic We have done with the romance of the Revolution, he told an early meeting of his Conseil dEtat, we must now commence its history.For his reforms to work they needed one commodity that Europes monarchs were determined to deny him time Chemists have a species of powder out of which they can make marble, he said, but it must have time to become solid Because many of the principles of the Revolution threatened the absolute monarchies of Russia which was to practice serfdom until 1861 , Austria and Prussia, and the nascent industrial kingdom of England, they formed seven coalitions over twenty three years to crush revolutionary France In the end they succeeded, but, thanks to Napoleon, the Bourbons were too late to destroy the revolutionary principles he had codified into law Many of those who opposed him were forced to adopt aspects of his reforms in their own countries in order to defeat him.There are two ways of constructing an international order, Henry Kissinger wrote in A World Restored, by will or by renunciation by conquest or by legitimacy Only one of these was open to Napoleon In Britain, which had already had its revolution 140 years earlier and thus enjoyed many of the legal benefits that the Revolution brought to France, Napoleon faced William Pitt the Younger, who saw in the destruction of French powerbe it revolutionary or Napoleonican opportunity to translate Britains maritime trading success into global great power status Napoleons threat to invade Britain in 1803 ensured that successive British governments would remain determined to overthrow him Their decrying of French imperialism was pure hypocrisy as Britain was busy building a vast empire at the time Napoleon boasted that he was of the race that founds empiresbut he had a different kind of empire in mind, in keeping with those of Caesar, Alexander and Frederick the Great.Napoleon is often accused of being a quintessential warmonger, yet war was declared on him far often than he declared it on others France and Britain were at war for nearly half the period between the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and Waterloo, and Napoleon was only a second lieutenant when the Revolutionary Wars broke out He launched the Peninsular War and the war against Russia in 1812 in the hope of extending the reach of his Continental System, a misguided protectionist answer to Britains control of the seas, and thereby force Britain to sue for peace It was thus Colbertian protectionism that brought him down, far than the bloodlust and egomania of which he is so often accused.His decision to invade Russia was not in and of itself his worst mistake The French had defeated the Russians three times since 1799, so it was understandable that he should believe he could do so again He had fought in blizzards at Eylau and in the Sierra de Guadarrama, and at the end of long lines of communications at Austerlitz and Friedland It was the very size of his army in 1812 that forced the Russians to adopt their strategy of constant retreat, and their adroitness in avoiding battle until they had lured him to within 75 miles of Moscow accounted for much of their victory He could not have known how to block the ravages of the typhus epidemic that killed around 100,000 men in his central striking force as its origins and cure would not be discovered for another century Despite this, had Napoleon chosen either one of two other possible routes back from Malojaroslavetz, he would have saved enough of the Grande Arme to preserve his crown He thought he could bring the enemy to a decisive battle and pushed his forces too fast and hard in pursuit of that goal He failed to appreciate that the Russian army had fundamentally changed and that Alexander I would stop at nothing to annihilate him.Overall, however, Napoleons capacity for battlefield decision making was astounding Having walked the ground of fifty three of his sixty battlefields, I was astonished by his genius for topography, his acuity and sense of timing A general must ultimately be judged by the outcome of the battles, and of Napoleons sixty battles and sieges he lost only Acre, Aspern Essling, Leipzig, La Rothire, Lon, Arcis and Waterloo When asked who was the greatest captain of the age, the Duke of Wellington replied In this age, in past ages, in any age, Napoleon.He convinced his followers they were taking part in an adventure, a pageant, an experiment and a story whose sheer splendour would draw the attention of posterity for centuries He was able to impart to ordinary people the sense that their livesand, if necessary, their deaths in battlemattered in the context of great events They too could make history It is untrue that he cared nothing for his men and was careless with their lives He lost a friend in almost every major battle, and his letters to Josephine and Marie Louise make it clear that these deaths, and those of his soldiers, affected him Yet he could not allow that to deflect him from his main purpose of pursuing victory, and he would not have been able to function as a general if it had, any than Ulysses Grant or George Patton could have done.Napoleon certainly never lacked confidence in his own capacity as a military leader On St Helena, when asked why he had not taken Frederick the Greats sword when he had visited Sans Souci, he replied, Because I had my own.Praise for Napoleon An epically scaled new biography Roberts brilliantly conveys the sheer energy and presence of Napoleon the organizational and military whirlwind who, through crisp and incessant questioning, sized up people and problems and got things done His dynamism shines in Robertss set piece chapters on major battles like Austerlitz, Jena, and Marengo, turning visionary military maneuvers into politically potent moments The New York Times Book Review Roberts is a masterly storyteller I would recommend his book to anyone seeking an accessible chronicle, rich in anecdote, of Napoleons fantastic story Max Hastings, The Wall Street Journal With his customary flair and keen historical eye, Andrew Roberts has delivered the goods again This is the best one volume biography of Napoleon in English for the last four decades A tour de force that belongs on every history lovers bookshelf Jay Winik, bestselling author of The Great Upheaval and April 1865 Is another long life of Napoleon really necessary On three counts, the answer given by Andrew Robertss impressive book is an emphatic yes The most important is that this is the first single volume general biography to make full use of the treasure trove of Napoleons 33,000 odd letters, which began being published in Paris only in 2004 Second, Roberts, who has previously written on Napoleon and Wellington, is a masterly analyst of the French emperors many battles Third, his book is beautifully written and a pleasure to read The Economist Napoleon remade France and much of Europe in his fifteen years in power and proved himself one of historys greatest military commanders Robertss access to Napoleons thirty three thousand letters, only recently available, allowed him to create a fully human portrait of this larger than life figure The Wall Street Journal, Holiday Gift Guide A huge, rich, deep, witty, humane and unapologetically admiring biography that is a pleasure to read The Napoleon painted here is a whirlwind of a mannot only a vigorous and supremely confident commander, but an astonishingly busy governor, correspondent and lover, too To dive into Robertss new book is to understandindeed, to feelwhy this peculiarly brilliant Corsican managed for so long to dazzle the world Dan Jones, The Telegraph Roberts in his Napoleon achieves the near impossible by writing on this extravagantly well covered subject with a freshness and excitement that makes readers think they have stumbled on something entirely new Philip Ziegler, The Spectator, Books of the Year Truly a Napoleonic triumph of a book, elegantly written, epic in scale, novelistic in detail, irresistibly galloping with the momentum of a cavalry charge, as comfortable on the battlefield as in the bedroom Here, at last, is the full biography Simon Sebag Montefiore, Evening Standard, Books of the Year Andrew Robertss Napoleon is a brilliant example of great man history, brimming with personality and the high octane Bonapartist spirit John Bew, New Statesman, Books of the Year Entertaining, even addictive Roberts writes with great vigor, style, and fluency Sunday Times London Magnificent Robertss fine book encompasses all the evidence to give a brilliant portrait of the man The book, as it needs to be, is massive, yet the pace is brisk and its never overwhelmed by the scholarly research, which was plainly immense Mail on Sunday Roberts not only brings the Napoleon story up to date but, with new evidence from the archives and an original spin on the present, makes a compelling case for why we should all read anew about the little Corsican in the 21st century The Observer London Magisterial and beautifully written A richly detailed and sure footed reappraisal of the man, his achievementsand failuresand the extraordinary times in which he lived Standpoint A definitive account that dispels many of the myths that surrounded Napoleon from his lifetime to the present day Publishers Weekly A compelling biography of the preeminent French general that stands apart from the rest, owing to the authors thoroughness, accuracy, and attention to detail Roberts relies on his military expertise, Napoleons surviving correspondence 33,000 items in all , and exhaustive on site studies of French battlegrounds This voluminous work is likely to set the standard for subsequent accounts Library Journal starred review Napoleon A Life Paul Johnson From New York Times bestselling author Johnson, a very readable and entertaining biography The Washington Post about one of the most important figures in modern European history Bonaparte In an ideal pairing subject, magisterial historian offers vivid look at life strategist, general, dictator who conquered much Europe Napoleon Wikipedia was born same year Republic Genoa, former commune Italy, transferred Corsica to France state ceded sovereign rights before his birth , during formally incorporated as province after years under nominal Genoese rule independence Biography Emperor By Richard Moore Portraits not murdered, say scientists Biography Bonaparte, first emperor France, is regarded greatest military leaders West Learn by Andrew Roberts This so big that pages can hardly contain it Philip Dwyer started feasible format Vol I Path Power v several ago Full books have been written single weeks Napoleonic Guide best independent reference source for everything you need know times Hill All breaks wait step Leader Certification complete self paced Home Study program, Your Right Be RichThis course fully interactive multimedia training system designed deeply imprint its profound, wealth generating, changing lessons on your subconscious Oliver October November American help He known book Think Grow Rich which among selling all time s works insisted fervid expectations are essential improving life, family, children Buonaparte August Corsican city Ajaccio fourth eleven Carlo Letizia Romolino His father, member noble Italian remained good terms with French when they took over control The Last King Jersey Suburban As expanded new Empire Western Europe, he doled out spoils war friends whether wanted or SparkNotes Animal Farm Snowball Snowball Orwell stint Trotskyist battalion Spanish Civil War began plans critique totalitarian communism influenced relatively positive portrayal Lines Love Letters That Sound Like You might think playboy, sleeping world beautiful women But heart, head, masculinity belonged woman Josephine letters wrote her St Helena Online South Atlantic news, association It seemed there no part RMS St went uncelebrated ship final visit home Not even propellors few members Dive Club slipped below surface gave them last inspection scheduled departure Home Roberts, British historian, Roberts great always relevant contemporary thinking problems Dr Henry Kissinger Andrew High Performance PTFE Silicone Now available through sealing package including heat sealers, high temperature bonding film silicone release cloth arobertsandrew Twitter Hear conversation Robert Tombs, Winston Churchill Drawing sources, private diaries George VI, paints intimate portrait complicated Speaking Engagements British has addressed audiences USA, Canada, Turkey, Cyprus, Australia, Hong Kong, Switzerland, Africa, Israel, Portugal, Spain, Ireland Profiles Facebook View profiles people named Join Facebook connect others may gives power Top LinkedIn professionals LinkedIn There use exchange information, ideas, opportunities FRHistS FRSL January journalist Visiting Professor Department Studies, College London Lehrman Institute Distinguished Lecturer Historical Society educated Gonville Caius College, Cambridge where PragerU Short Videos Big IdeasKILA distinguished appeared radio television around world, lectured Yale, Dr MD Book Appointment urology specialist Tyler, TX practicing graduated from U Of Tx Med Sch At IMDb award winning digital artist decades experience graphic design computer graphics games, feature visual effects Carmel, IN Internal Medicine board certified internist Indiana specializes area addiction medicine specifically focuses helping those dealing opioid medication assisted treatment MAT outpatient clinic Surgeon Philadelphia, PA US surgeon Pennsylvania affiliated multiple hospitals area, Jeanes Hospital Temple University Observer profile man T here lot questionable stories diminutive, sparkly sociable An ex girlfriend claims framed pictures Margaret Thatcher just Help us improve our Author Pages updating bibliography submitting current image definitive soldier statesman acclaimed Storm winner LA prize, finalist Plutarch Fondation prize bestseller thrilling tale political genius uncommonly gifted writer eBook Best Month, many Napoleon, but volume make full ongoing publication Seemingly leaving stone unturned, begins pointing roots Web Site Page Hackney, UK Skills, History, Mind, Science, Poetry Tables Getting grips LaTeX academic writing, tables common feature, often summarising results research therefore skill needs mastering order 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Brenda Thank you, Mr Newsome, review excellent insights interpretation Elektra wrote, Hoffmannthal text tasks December July th United States, serving assumed presidency Vice Couchtuner Watch Series Couchtuner Series Search TV Show using box manually List Its listed alphabetically Donald Trump Mussolini America double only met Donald told me needed Red Cross dinner dance raise money fight cancer, held opulent Mar Lago Palm Beach Kindle island resulting fascination Roman produce papers Belize Archaeology Voice Instructor portraying magnificent States assassination Abraham double Propagating Plants Helianthemums Helianthemum present cultivars nummularium sale, some widely than othersTo maintain selection, be continuously propagated included propagation methods, either seed cuttingsPropagating cuttings ensures exact copy parent plant maintained Napoleon: A Life

 

    • Napoleon: A Life
    • 2.3
    • 146
    • Relié
    • 976 pages
    • 0143127853
    • Andrew Roberts
    • Anglais
    • 23 June 2016

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