⌕ Free pdf 櫓 Argo: How the CIA and Hollywood Pulled Off the Most Audacious Rescue in History download in english Ꮃ By Matt Baglio ᠀

⌕ Free pdf 櫓 Argo: How the CIA and Hollywood Pulled Off the Most Audacious Rescue in History download in english Ꮃ By Matt Baglio ᠀ ⌕ Free pdf 櫓 Argo: How the CIA and Hollywood Pulled Off the Most Audacious Rescue in History download in english Ꮃ By Matt Baglio ᠀ ARGO Also by Antonio J MendezThe Master of DisguiseSpy Dust Also by Matt BaglioThe Rite The Making of a Modern ExorcistARGOVIKINGPublished by the Penguin GroupPenguin Group USA Inc., 375 Hudson Street,New York, New York 10014, U.S.A.Penguin Group Canada , 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700,Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4P 2Y3 a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, EnglandPenguin Ireland, 25 St Stephens Green, Dublin 2, Ireland a division of Penguin Books Ltd Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell,Victoria 3124, Australia a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park,New Delhi 110 017, IndiaPenguin Group NZ , 67 Apollo Drive, Rosedale, Auckland 0632,New Zealand a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd Penguin Books South Africa Pty Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue,Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South AfricaPenguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, EnglandFirst published in 2012 by Viking Penguin,a member of Penguin Group USA Inc.10987654321Copyright Antonio J Mendez and Matt Baglio, 2012All rights reservedAll statements of fact, opinion, or analysis expressed are those of the authors and do not reflect the official positions or views of the CIA or any other U.S Government agency Nothing in the contents should be construed as asserting or implying U.S Government authentication of information or Agency endorsement of the authors views This material has been reviewed by the CIA to prevent the disclosure of classified information.Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataMendez, Antonio J.Argo how the CIA and Hollywood pulled off the most audacious rescue in history Antonio J Mendez and Matt Baglio.p cm.ISBN 978 1 101 60120 41 Iran Hostage Crisis, 19791981 2 United States Central Intelligence Agency 3 CanadaForeign relationsIran 4 IranForeign relationsCanada 5 Mendez, Antonio J 6 DiplomatsUnited StatesHistory20th century I Baglio, Matt II Title.E183.8.I55M46 2012955.0542 dc232012014991Printed in the United States of AmericaSet in ITC Galliard StdDesigned by Alissa AmellNo part of this book may be reproduced, scanned, or distributed in any printed or electronic form without permission Please do not participate in or encourage piracy of copyrighted materials in violation of the authors rights Purchase only authorized editions.To JonnaSome names have been changed to protect the privacy of the individuals involved.INTRODUCTIONLate that Saturday afternoon I was painting in my studio Outside, the sun was just beginning to fall behind the hills, casting a long dark shadow that covered the valley like a curtain I liked the half light in the room.Come Rain or Come Shine poured from the radio I often listened to music while I worked It was almost as important to me as the light I had installed a fine stereo system and if I painted late enough into Saturday night, I could catch Rob Bambergers Hot Jazz Saturday Night on NPR.I had been painting since my early childhood, and was working as an artist when the CIA hired me in 1965 I still considered myself to be a painter first and a spy second Painting had always been an outlet for the tensions that came with my job at the Agency While there were occasional bureaucrats whose antics brought me to the point of wanting to throttle them, if I could get into my studio and pick up a brush then those pentup hostilities would melt away.My studio sat perched above the garage, up a steeply angled set of stairs It was a large room with windows on three sides The room had diagonal yellow pine floors covered with a variety of oriental carpets and was furnished with a huge white sofa and some antique pieces that my wife, Karen, had acquired for her interior design business It was a comfortable space and, most important, it was mine You needed permission, which I gave pretty freely, to enter Friends and family knew, however, that when I was in the middle of a project, they should tread lightly.I had built the studio as I had built the house Upon returning from a posting overseas in 1974, Karen and I had decided it would be best to raise our three kids away from the grit and crime of Washington, D.C Wed chosen a forty acre plot of land in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, and after clearing a section of woods, Id spent the better part of three summers constructing the main house while the family and I lived in a log cabin I had also built The land had a long history Antietam Battlefield was just up the road and every now and then we would find Civil War relicsbuttons, bullets, breastplatesdiscarded among the leaves and fallen trees bordering our property.The painting I was working on that afternoon had been triggered by a phrase associated with my job Wolf Rain It had the haunted sound of blue, dreary, dank weather, and spoke to the depths of the wooded landscape, just outside my window, on a winters night It conveyed a kind of sorrow that I couldnt explain, but felt that I could paint.Working on Wolf Rain was one of those things you hope happens in your career as an artistthe painting just emerges from nowhere Perhaps like a character who shoulders his way into a book to take over the narrative The figure of the wolf was recognizable only by the eyesit was a floating image in a rain soaked forest, and you could sense the anguish in its gaze.If my painting was going well, my brain would instantly go into alpha mode, the subjective, creative right brain state where the breakthroughs happen Einstein said that the definition of genius is not that you are smarter than everyone else, its that youre ready to receive the inspiration That was the definition of alpha for me I would start the painting session by ridding myself of all the assholes at work and then leap to moments of clarity where I would find solutions to problems that I had never considered before I would be ready to receive.It was December 19, 1979, and there was much on my mind Earlier in the week I had been given a memorandum from the U.S State Department that contained some startling news Six American diplomats had escaped from the militant overrun U.S embassy in Tehran and were hiding out at the residences of the Canadian ambassador, Ken Taylor, and his senior immigration officer, John Sheardown The six appeared to be safe for the moment, but there was no guarantee they would remain so in the wake of the embassy takeover, militants were combing the city looking for any American they could find The six Americans had been in hiding for almost two months How much longer could they hold out The news of their escape had come as a bit of a surprise to me I had spent the previous month down at the CIA engrossed in the wider problem On November 4, a group of Iranian militants had stormed the U.S embassy in Tehran and taken than sixty six Americans hostage The militants accused the Americans of spying and trying to undermine the countrys nascent Islamic Revolution, all of this while the Iranian government, led by the Ayatollah Khomeini, lent its support.At the time of the takeover, I was working as the chief of the CIAs worldwide disguise operations in the Office of Technical Services OTS Over the course of my then fourteen year career, I had conducted numerous clandestine operations in far flung places, disguised agents and case officers, and helped to rescue defectors and refugees from behind the Iron Curtain.In the immediate aftermath of the attack, my team and I had been working on preparing the disguises, false documents, and cover stories for the various aliases that any advance team would need in order to infiltrate Iran Then, in the midst of these preparations, the memo from the State Department arrived.As I applied a dark glaze across the underpainting of the canvas, it immediately transformed the mood of the work The piercing eyes of the wolf suddenly came alive like two golden orbs I stared, transfixed The image had triggered something The State Department appeared to be taking a wait and see approach with the six Americans, which I found to be problematic I had recently been to Iran on a covert operation and I knew the dangers firsthand At any moment they could be discovered The city was full of eyes, watching, searching If the six Americans had to run, where would they go The crowds of thousands of people chanting outside the American embassy in Tehran each day gave no doubt that, if captured, the six would almost certainly be thrown in jail and perhaps even lined up in front of a firing squad I had always told my team that there are two kinds of exfiltrations those with hostile pursuit and those without We couldnt afford to wait until the six Americans were on the run It would be almost impossible to get them out then.My son Ian walked into the studio Whats up he asked He walked over to the painting and scrutinized it as only the seventeen year old son of the artist could Nice, Dad, he pronounced, stepping back to get a better perspective But it needs blue Hed barely noticed the eyes of the wolf.Get your butt out of here, Ian Ill be in for dinner in about thirty minutes Tell your mom, will you On the radio Ella broke into a rendition of Just One of Those Things, an early version, and I began to clean my brushes in the turpentine and put the caps back on the oil paints My palette, which had built up over the years, resembled a bunch of brightly colored stalagmites sitting on an oval board with a thumbhole through it At this point it was too heavy to pick up, but it contained fragments of every painting done in my studio.As I put away my brushes, the initial stages of a plan began to emerge Not only would we need to create new identities as well as disguises for the six Americans, but someone would have to infiltrate Iran, link up with them, and assess their ability to carry it off.A million questions began running through my mind How was I going to convince six innocent American diplomats who had no covert training that they could successfully escape from Iran How was I going to create a cover story that would account for the presence of this group in a country caught up in the throes of a revolution Despite having done dozens of exfiltrations, I could see that this was going to be one of my most challenging missions to date.I turned off the radio and the lights and stood for a moment in the darkness, looking out the window and through the night to the glow of the chandelier in the greenhouse Espionage is an instrument of statecraft, I mused If conducted properly and professionally, there are international rules of engagement In the case of the revolutionary government of Iran, however, the only rule was that there werent any.1WELCOME TO THE REVOLUTIONThe call went out over the radio network a little after ten oclock in the morning Recall Recall All marines to Post One The voice was that of Al Golacinski, the chief security officer of the U.S embassy in Tehran The date was November 4, 1979, and a large crowd of militant students had just broken through the front gates and was pouring into the compound.The embassy was massive It took up nearly twenty seven acres and was surrounded by a high brick wall Inside, there were dozens of buildings and warehouses, the ambassadors residence, an athletic field, tennis courts, even a swimming pool In addition, the compound was located right in the heart of downtown Tehran, and was bordered on all sides by some of the citys most heavily trafficked streets When you added it all up, it meant that the embassy was a security nightmare Nearly a dozen U.S Marines were stationed at the compound, but their job was mainly to provide internal protection.For this reason, the security plan hatched by Golacinski called for all personnel to head toward the chancery, a large three story building that had been fortified with window grills, blast shields, and time coded locks The second floor could be sealed off by a thick steel door, which would theoretically allow the Americans to hold out for several hours Every embassy in the world is dependent on the host government to provide external security, and it was hoped that these precautions would give the Iranian government enough time to organize a response and send help.The embassy had been attacked once before, nine months previously, on February 14, 1979, just one month after Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the shah of Iran, had fled the country During that attack, a group of Marxist guerrillas had stormed the embassy in a hail of gunfire and held the staffers hostage for four hours.At the time, Iran was a chaotic mess The Ayatollah Khomeini had returned triumphantly from exile in Paris and the shahs government had quickly collapsed The army soon followed suit and in the vacuum the diverse factions who had banded together to oust the shah leftists, nationalists, Soviet sponsored communists, hard line Islamicists had splintered and were now fighting it out among each other Armed men roamed the streets and revenge killings were rampant Small gangs called komiteh committees sprang up across the country, carving out territories of control Beholden to no one except whatever mullah they claimed allegiance to, these gangs amounted to little than thugs, and began enforcing their own brand of revolutionary justice at the barrel of a gun Amid this confusion, Khomeini and his inner circle had installed a provisional government to manage the country while the Assembly of Experts worked diligently behind the scenes to draft a new constitution.It wasnt long before the provisional government had sent a ragtag group of men to kick the occupiers out, but the Valentines Day takeover would have important repercussions for the events to follow For one, the U.S embassy staff was drastically reduced at full strength the embassy employed nearly a thousand people Second, and perhaps even important, it gave the impression that the Iranian government would honor its commitment to protect the embassy and the diplomats working inside.After the Marxist guerrillas were evicted, the protection of the embassy was assigned to a group of komiteh, who took over one of the small buildings near the front of the compound and patrolled the grounds It wasnt until the summer that a permanent security force was assigned to guard the embassy, but even by the most optimistic of assessments it was only token.In light of the danger exposed by this first attack, one might ask why the embassy wasnt simply closed down For starters, Iran was just too important to the strategic interests of the United States Not only did the country hold vast oil reserves, but for than twenty five years it had served as a staunch ally and buffer against the Soviet Union, which shared a sixteen hundred mile border with Iran It was no secret that the Soviets desired a warm water port and wished to increase their influence in the Persian Gulf So rather than sever ties, the Carter administration began cautiously working with the provisional government and the U.S embassy in Iran remained open for business.It may seem odd today to think that Iran and the United States were once allies, but everything must be understood in terms of the Great Game waged between the Soviet Union and America.In earlier times, the United States seemed content to observe Iran from the sidelines Then known as Persia it wouldnt be named Iran until 1935 , the country was like the knot in the center of a tugofwar match between Russia and Great Britaina role that Iran managed with great skill, playing one nation off the other Then World War II happened and the geopolitics of the region were upended Suddenly Moscow and London were allies, and in their quest to protect oil and overland shipping routes into Russia, they decided to jointly occupy the country Worried that the Iranian monarch, Reza Shah, was leaning toward an alliance with Nazi Germany, the two nations had him deposed and installed his twenty one year old son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to the throne.After the war, the United States invested heavily in Iran, both economically and militarily Stalin had only reluctantly withdrawn his troops from northern Iran in 1946, and the thinking in Washington was that he would use the slightest pretext to invade again Just as concerning was the potential for the Soviets to undermine the shahs government through clandestine means Irans communist Tudeh Party was growing in power and openly supported the aims of Moscow.As a result, it was with trepidation that America watched in 1951 as the shahs power was slowly stripped away by an Iranian lawyer named Mohammed Mosaddeq Mosaddeq had risen to prominence on the back of a campaign to nationalize the British owned Anglo Iranian Oil Company AIOC , a popular move among Iranians who had long felt exploited by the British Caught up in a wave of nationalism, Mosaddeq became a hero and was eventually nominated prime minister.As one would expect, in response to the Iranians attempt to nationalize the AIOC, the British soon instigated what amounted to a boycott of Iranian oil, which sent the local economy into a tailspin In the ensuing turmoil, the coalition that had supported Mosaddeq began to splinter.Nobody in Washington believed that Mosaddeq was a communist, but concern began to mount when he aligned himself with the Tudeh Party The final straw for the Eisenhower administration came when intelligence uncovered that the Soviets were about to give Mosaddeq twenty million dollars in aid.In light of these threats, the White House ordered CIA director Allen Dulles to work with the British to overthrow Mosaddeq.With the benefit of hindsight, its easy to say that the Eisenhower administration overreacted However, in the heat of the Cold War, Americas leaders saw a very different world than the one that exists today In it, the Soviets were on the march everywhere, installing puppet regimes in Eastern Europe and supporting uprisings in Italy, France, and Greece Its also important to remember that the United States was involved in a bloody war at the time in Korea, which Eisenhower had inherited from Truman Iran could just as easily become another front.In the spring of 1953, Kermit Kim Roosevelt, chief of the Near East Division of the CIAs Directorate of Plans, was granted one million dollars and tasked with carrying out the operation to overthrow Mosaddeq, known as TPAJAX, or Operation AJAX.The plan called for the use of propaganda and political action to undermine Mosaddeqs support, but, as usual, things didnt go according to plan Mosaddeq had been warned of the countercoup and had some of the plotters arrested even before the operation could get under way However, with the help of massive public demonstrations, many of them organized by Roosevelt, Mosaddeq was forced to resign and the shah was swept to power.In terms of its Cold War strategy of containment, Washington considered the operation to be a massive foreign policy success, and Kermit Roosevelt was heralded as a hero Upon meeting him, the shah famously said, I owe my throne to God, my people, the armyand you In the wake of the operation the shah quickly worked out an agreement with the oil giant AIOC, and Iran became a stable, pro Western ally, providing the United States with a steady flow of oil as well as a series of listening posts along the Soviet Iran border that allowed it to eavesdrop on Russian intercontinental ballistic missile launches.Regardless of these strategic advantages, however, there is no denying that the 1953 countercoup had major consequences for the long term relations between the United States and Iran.Many opponents of Operation AJAX blamed the United States for acting selfishly to protect its own interests, to the detriment of Iran and its people Ironically, as the historical record shows, the countercoup would not have succeeded if it hadnt been for the support of a sizable faction of Iranians whod also had much to gain by securing the shahs power However, the popular myth in 1979 among Iranians, ever distrustful of foreign intervention, was that the CIA had single handedly ousted a democratic leader while imposing a tyrant in his place While not entirely accurate, it painted a picture that many Iranians were eager to believe.After returning to power, the shah aligned himself with the West and immediately set about trying to legitimize his reign He ushered in a series of Westernized reforms and spent lavishly to create a well trained and modern military Both efforts would put him at odds with his people, who would later claim he had destroyed their traditional way of life and at the same time squandered the nations wealth in an attempt to appease Washington.Over time he grew and autocratic, tamping down any form of dissent with the help of his brutal secret police known by the acronym SAVAK.As tended to happen during the Great Game, however, successive American administrations decided to take the good with the bad and outwardly supported the shah, even while privately encouraging him to cut the systemic corruption of his regime and curb the abuses of SAVAK.The shah seemed neither willing nor capable to do either.With most avenues for political dissent gone, the masses had turned to the mullahs for support, and the clergy used their newfound power to denounce the shah as a tool of the West The most outspoken of these critics was a cleric by the name of Ruhollah Khomeini Born in 1902, Khomeini had made a name for himself among the religious community of Iran by authoring numerous tracts against Irans secular leadership, including the shahs father, Reza Then in 1961, he would take on the shah directly, decrying the shahs pro Western policiesspecifically those enfranchising women and non Muslimsas being antithetical to the true spirit of Islam However, unknown even to his own followers, who believed he would support a moderate Islamic democracy once the shah had abdicated, Khomeinis real aim was to create a government that was strictly beholden to Islamic law and was ruled unquestionably by him.Too powerful to arrest or kill, Khomeini was exiled by the shah to Turkey in 1964 and then eventually to Najaf, in southern Iraq From there the cleric would prove to be a resourceful political operator For the next fourteen years he would continue to give sermons lambasting the evils of the shah and America, which were smuggled back into Iran and sold in the bazaars as cassette tapes.By the fall of 1978, the country was on the brink of collapse A succession of riots and strikes had led to violent clashes between the shahs security forces and Khomeinis supporters After a series of last ditch measuresincluding a military governmenthad failed to stem the tide, the shah was finally forced to leave Iran on January 16, 1979 In his wake he left a country teetering on the edge, and it would take only ten days for the remnants of his government and the army to fall apart.While there had been many signs that the shahs regime was on the verge of crumbling, the suddenness with which it happened caught the White House, as well as the intelligence community, completely off guard Even as late as August of 1978, a National Intelligence Estimate famously reported that Iran was not in a revolutionary or even a pre revolutionary situation As to how we at the CIA and the White House could have been so wildly off the mark, there is no easy answer The shah had maintained an iron grip on his country for nearly twenty five years, and the common wisdom was that despite the unrest he would weather the storm After the fact, it was revealed that many in Washington had assumed the shah would use any force necessary to save his regime, and they were baffled when he failed to do so Even the U.S ambassador to Iran at the time, Bill Sullivan, believed the shahs government would survive by the time he changed his tune, on November 9, 1978, there was little that could be done Throughout the struggles of 1978, there was no clear strategy for meeting with the opposition groups, partly because of the fear that it might undermine the shahs regime In the end, though, perhaps the biggest reason for the intelligence failure was that the U.S government had invested too much importance in the person of the shah and not enough in the people of Iran So when the cracks in the regime began to appear, the policy makers in Washington refused to acknowledge them because they simply had no other alternative than to support the shah.Ironically, the shah was said to be somewhat nervous about the election of Jimmy Carter The shahs main concern, it seems, had been Carters stated goal of making human rights a central tenet of his presidency Sensitive to public opinion, the shah was apparently concerned that Carter might think he was a tyrant He neednt have worried As late as New Years Eve 1978, just one week before a series of violent clashes would touch off the revolution, President Carter visited Tehran and reassured the shah of Americas firm commitment by calling Iran an island of stability in one of the troubled areas of the world While Carter may have had good reasons to support the shah, or he had no alternative given the strategic alliance created under the necessities of the Cold War, this perceived hypocrisy did not go unnoticed by the masses in Iran The American president was now considered to be a close friend of the shah, and it wasnt long before crowds of angry demonstrators began denouncing Carters name alongside that of the shahs.Despite the Iranians rhetoric, there seemed to be some common ground between the two countries The shah, for one, had purchased vast amounts of American military equipment during the Nixon and Ford administrations, some of which still had to be delivered In addition, Iran had several billion dollars deposited in U.S banks, money the revolutionary government would desperately need to stay afloat During the fall of 1979, Khomeini had yet to solidify his power, and the country was being loosely run by the relatively moderate government of Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan In June of 1979, the Iranians accepted the appointment of Bruce Laingen as the U.S embassys charg daffaires, and it appeared the two countries were on track to normalize relations.Fleeing Iran, the shah spent several months as an international fugitive, until President Carter was persuaded to admit the deposed ruler for humanitarian reasons, when it was discovered he was suffering from lymphoma and needed emergency medical treatment Yet even as he admitted the shah, Carter knew he was taking a risk Khomeini had been calling for the shah to return to face crimes, and Carter was worried about reprisals In a breakfast meeting at the White House with his staff, he reiterated his concerns, asking them, What course of action will you recommend to me if the Americans in Iran are seized or killed No one had an answer.News of the shahs arrival in America immediately touched off a wave of anger and paranoia among the Iranian population, which feared the United States was conspiring to reinstall him For months, Iranian newspapers had been running fabricated stories claiming the United States was behind every setback that befell the country Khomeini, searching for a way to strengthen his control, added fuel to the flames, calling on students to expand their attacks on America in the hopes that the United States would be pressured to return the deposed ruler Predictably, Iranians set their sights on the most obvious target they could find the American embassy in Tehran.The morning of November 4, 1979, had started off just like any other, and for the Americans heading to work that day there was no reason to suspect that the embassy was in the crosshairs of a massive assault Bruce Laingen had chaired a morning meeting of the department heads, after which he, along with Vic Tomseth and Mike Howland, had gone to Irans foreign ministry to discuss obtaining diplomatic immunity for American military personnel stationed in Iran.One of the first people to see the militants enter the compound was John Graves, who was the public affairs officer Graves had been in Iran for than a year and had been through the Valentines Day attack.The press office was located just off the motor pool near the front gate Somebody had cut the chain looped through the gate, and a large crowd of demonstrators came surging in Most of them were women carrying signs that read, DONT BE AFRAID and WE ONLY WANT TO SET INmistakenly using the English set instead of sit in the latter The preponderance of females in the first wave was actually by design, as the militants felt that the U.S Marines would be hesitant to fire on the women As Graves stood by the window he watched one of the militants approach an Iranian policeman who was supposed to be protecting the embassy, and the two men embraced Graves wasnt surprised.As the militants dispersed throughout the compound, the rest of the embassy personnel were slow to react Demonstrations and crowds shouting Death to America and Down with the shah had become an almost daily occurrence, so much so that the Americans working inside referred to them as background noise To complicate matters, the militants had chosen to launch their attack on National Students Day, an event commemorating the death of a group of students killed by the shahs forces during a demonstration at the University of Tehran the year before The demonstration had drawn several million students, and the planners were able to use this larger crowd to camouflage their assault.In a matter of minutes, the militants were able to completely cut off the chancery Staffers and embassy personnel, now fully aware of what was going on, stood on chairs to peer out windows Some crowded around closed circuit monitors located down in the security room What they saw startled them The embassy grounds were swarming with militants who were waving signs and chanting, We only want to set in Then, one by one, the closed circuit monitors went blank as the cameras were yanked out of the walls.Most of the embassy personnel were calm, some even annoyed It seemed as if the students were just going to march around the embassy grounds chanting and cheering until it was time to go home Over and over, voices rose above the dinsome with the aid of megaphonesshouting, We mean you no harm We only want to set in Unbeknownst to the Americans, this was not some overzealous protest march but a well coordinated assault Calling themselves Muslim Students Following the Imams Line, the students had cased the embassy for many days and had drawn up detailed maps Theyd cut strips of cloth to use as blindfolds for nearly one hundred hostages and had even stockpiled food to feed their captives.The plan was to occupy the embassy for three days, at which point they would read a list of grievances against the shah and America Their principal hope was that the attack would weaken the position of the moderate Bazargan government by forcing it into a tough situation If Bazargan came to the rescue of the Americans, then Iranians would see him and other moderates in the government for what they were puppets of the West.Some of the militants carried makeshift weapons such as bike chains, boards, even hammers At least a few carried pistols, contradicting later claims that the assault was completely nonviolent.After locking down the chancery, the marines quickly donned their riot gear They loaded pistols and shotguns and took up positions throughout the embassy The adrenaline was pumping and some seemed eager for a fight One lay down in one of the offices on his belly with ammunition easily within reach, sighting down the barrel of his shotgun sniper style as he scanned the window.Meanwhile Laingen, Tomseth, and Howland were in a car on their way back from their meeting at the foreign ministry They had just pulled out into traffic when Al Golacinski called on the radio and told them to turn around Theres hundreds of people swarming all over the embassy grounds, he said The three realized that even if they reached the embassy, they probably wouldnt be able to make it inside They quickly decided that the best course of action would be to head back to the foreign ministry and try to organize help from there.The last thing Laingen told Golacinski before signing off was to make sure that the marines didnt open fire If even one of the marines fired, then they would likely have a bloodbath on their hands.What about tear gas Golacinski asked him.Only as a last resort, Laingen responded.By this time, the staffers on the second floor of the chancery began to realize that the attack was serious than they had at first thought Some of the marines and other Americans, including John Graves, whod been working in the outer buildings, had already been captured, and the Americans in the chancery watched from the second floor windows as their colleagues were blindfolded, had their hands tied, and were marched toward the ambassadors residence near the back of the compound.Don Hohman, an army medic who was at the Bijon apartments across the street from the back gate, radioed Golacinski to tell him that a group of Iranians had broken in over there as well Up on the fourth floor, he could hear them kicking down doors and searching the apartments below Golacinski realized there was little he could do he told Hohman he was on his own Hohman would later be captured as he tried to scale down the outside of the building At the moment, Golacinski had bigger problems than Hohman word had reached him on the radio that the chancery had just been breached Despite the fact that several million dollars had recently been spent to fortify the building, the militants had found the structures one weak spot a basement window that had been left unbarred as a fire escape In fact, the intruders seemed to know beforehand exactly where it was.With the militants inside the chancerys basement, Golacinski ordered everyone, including the Iranian staffers waiting on the first floor, up to the second floor The second floor was normally considered off limits to the local employees In a fit of bravery or stupidity, depending on how you look at it, Golacinski then asked Laingen over the radio if he could go outside to reason with the crowd, which now numbered well over a thousand Laingen told him he could do so only if he could guarantee his own safety, which he could not Golacinski went anyway, and he was soon captured and marched back to the chancery at gunpoint.On the second floor of the chancery, marines and staffers began piling up furniture behind the steel door The central hallway was crowded now and everyone shared worried glances Some of the Iranian employees started crying Marines walked among everyone handing out gas masks Other marines cocked and recocked their shotguns The mood was tense.Elsewhere in the building, a small group of Americans was busy destroying documents and dismantling sensitive communications equipment so it couldnt fall into the hands of the militants The order to do so had been slow in coming from Laingen, since it was hoped that the demonstration would end without incident A few of the enterprising staff members had already begun destroying documents inside the embassys ultrasecure communications room, referred to as the vault because it could be sealed off by a large steel safelike door Besides housing the communications equipment, the vault, which was about twelve feet by twelve feet, also contained a barrel like device used to pulverize documents However, the machine often jammed, so somebody had brought in a commercial shredder that cut papers into long strips But the going was slow, and rather than destroying the documents completely, it left a pile of strips on the floor.The situation was deteriorating fast The militants led Al Golacinski into the basement of the chancery and then marched him up to the second floor, where the Americans had barricaded themselves behind the reinforced door The stairwell was filling with tear gas and his eyes stung Someone waved a burning magazine in front of his face and he recoiled in fear Dont burn me he shouted Then the barrel of a gun was shoved to the back of his head and he was given an ultimatum tell them to open this door or you die.Golacinski shouted through the metal door, telling his colleagues that there was no point resisting He said the militants had already captured eight Americans this was his own assessment and that they only wanted to read a statement and then leave This is just like February 14, he said.John Limbert, a political officer who spoke fluent Farsi, volunteered to go outside and see if he could persuade them to free Golacinski At first the militants were surprised when he admonished them like children in their own language, telling them that the Revolutionary Guard was on the way to kick them out They knew he was bluffing, and in a matter of minutes he was captured and given the same option as Golacinski get your friends to open this door or we shoot you.Laingen had by now realized that resisting further was hopeless Despite their best efforts at the Iranian foreign ministry, he and Tomseth had been unable get the Iranian government to help Using the telephone in the foreign ministers office, he called the U.S embassy and told Ann Swift, the embassys senior political officer, to surrender Swift and two other staffers were manning a bank of phones in Bruce Laingens outer office As the most senior official present at the embassy, she was doing her best to keep the lines of communication open Early in the assault, she had called the Operations Center at the U.S State Department and had been put through to three senior officials, including Hal Saunders, the assistant secretary of state for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Saunders was still on the phone with Swift an hour later when Laingen told her it was time to give up Were going to let them in, she told Saunders over the phone.Realizing the seriousness of the situation, Saunders then relayed this information to President Carters national security adviser, Zbigniew Brzezinski, who then called the president at four in the morning Carter was deeply disturbed but reasonably confident that the Iranian government would quickly remove the militants, much as it had on February 14.After surrendering, the Americans in the chancery resigned themselves to their fate When the steel door was finally opened, the breathless mob flooded in The staffers inside the vault would continue to hold out for another hour or so destroying documents, but in the end they too would be forced to give up.The original security plan had called for the embassy staff to hold on for two hours until the Iranian government could send help As it turned out, the plan had worked to perfection The only problem, of course, was that the help never came.News of the embassy attack reached me on Sunday morning while I was standing at the kitchen counter sipping my first cup of coffee This was my favorite part of the weekendwhen my family was still asleep and the house was quiet I had a small transistor radio tuned to NPR and I half listened to it as I flipped through the Sunday newspaper Outside, a light dusting of snow covered the ground and the sky was cold and gray I was wondering how much firewood I was going to have to cut before I could get into my studio to paint We had a large greenhouse attached to the front of the house and I was just about to step into it to watch the snow when the NPR broadcast was interrupted by news of the attack.Events were still unfolding, but the overall picture was clear A mob had stormed the embassy and the lives of nearly seventy American diplomats were in danger.My mind flashed back to April 1979, the last time I had set foot inside the U.S embassy in Tehran As a technical officer in the CIAs Office of Technical Services with than fourteen years of experience at the time, I had been asked to infiltrate Iran in the midst of the revolution to help rescue a blue striper, or top Iranian agent, code named RAPTOR As the chief of the disguise branch, I was charged with coming up with a convincing disguise that would allow the agent, a former colonel in the Iranian army, to walk past the security controls at Mehrabad Airport and onto a commercial flight.The operation was similar to countless others Id done in Southeast Asia and other distant parts of the world, but it was far from routine Violence had exploded all across the country and revolutionaries were hunting down former members of the shahs regime Time was running out for the colonel Hed spent the winter hiding in his grandmothers tin roofed attic, where snow dripped down on him while a group of Revolutionary Guards rifled through the apartment below By the time I got to him he was badly shaken.I had used the library in the embassy as part of my research for his disguise Then I spent the better part of a week preparing him, training him, using all the tricks Id learned over the course of my career to get him out of the country alive.After listening to the news for a few minutes, I tiptoed into the bedroom and quietly picked up my car keys and my Agency badge I stopped in the kitchen to scribble a note to Karen explaining where I had gone, then picked up the phone and called the duty officer for my section On the weekends it would be his job to monitor all the cable traffic and let me know if I needed to come in The details of the attack were still sketchy, but cables were flooding in by the minute All of us at the CIA were aware of the dangers that the embassy personnel were up against in a place as unpredictable as revolutionary Iran Among the Americans were three CIA colleagues of mine who no doubt would be singled out for special treatment if the Iranians were able to identify them I only hoped that the staffers had had enough time to destroy all the sensitive documents inside the embassy When I finally got the duty officer on the line, he only confirmed what I had already suspected Things were rolling down at the office It was time to go to work.2PICKING UP THE PIECESIn 1979, the headquarters for OTS was located in Foggy Bottom, on a small hill on the District side of the Teddy Roosevelt Bridge, just north of the John F Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts The small collection of neoclassical limestone and brick buildings was unremarkable by most accounts Once a part of the original Naval Observatory in the late 1800s, the buildings were eventually taken over during World War II by Americas first intelligence agency, the Office of Strategic Services OSS Commanded by Major General William Wild Bill Donovan, the OSS had been staffed by some of the most colorful characters in the history of espionage, including con artists, second story men, experts in counterfeiting, magicians, even actors and Ivy League blue bloods World War II is full of the exploits of these daring operatives The fledgling spy service sent operatives behind German and Japanese lines and created ingenious devices such as cigarette pistols, matchbox cameras, even exploding flour It also paved the way for the CIA In fact, much of the structure, operational methods, and procedures that the CIA would later come to use evolved directly from the OSS.OTS, meanwhile, sprang from the research and development branch of the OSS Originally headed by a chemist, Stanley Lovell, the RD branch would play an integral role in developing and pushing the capabilities of OSS operatives, while paving the way for future techs such as myself.Its a fast paced, straightforward, and gripping story full of drama and compelling characters.For history buffs and Affleck fans, ARGO the book, provides added insight into a wild, if not widely known, incident in the history of American foreign policy and the CIA Boston GlobeBesides being a talented spy, Mendez is also a gifted storytellerHis latest book is a page turner Associated PressFascinating storyThis book is an exciting read Deseret NewsARGO is a mesmerizing book a fast paced, irresistible read that s equal parts politics, history and espionage Shelf AwarenessThis is an amazing and dramatic story of intrigue and deception set against the backdrop ofinternational tension BooklistFresh and engagingA solid choice for fans of thrillers and international intrigue Kirkus A fast paced account of a 1979 rescue operation during the Iran hostage crisis of 19791981Details of this dangerous operation inject strong suspense and excitement into the closing chapters Publishers WeeklyOne of the most daring and courageous clandestine operations during my career involved efforts to rescue Americans taken hostage in Tehran after our embassy was seized on November 4, 1979 Six Americans managed to escape the U.S compound and flee to the Canadian embassy, where they were hidden A very brave CIA officer, Tony Mendez, using commercial cover, entered Iran with false identities for the six and, using techniques that ought to remain secret so they can be used again, managed to get them out of Iran.Robert M Gates, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and former U.S Secretary of Defense, in his book From the ShadowsThis is a fascinating story about how Tony Mendez and the CIA used a bit of technical expertise and a lot of daring and courage to rescue American hostages in Iran Tony is emblematic of the extraordinary men and women of CIA Most of their stories cannot be toldbut fortunately, in ARGO, Tony has been able to lift the veil of secrecyjust a bit.George J Tenet, former director of Central Intelligence AgencyJames Bonds Q comes to life This gripping, true story of a white knuckle operation by a little known part of the CIA reads like a thriller Full of authentic detail and characters, of bravery and drama, its a must read for all spy enthusiasts and CIA watchers.Dame Stella Rimington, former general director, MI5, British IntelligenceThe CIA and Hollywood in cahoots, a painter turned spy, an impossible rescue mission with no guns and only one chance at successARGO has everything This remarkable white knuckle spy story is torn from the pages of real life, and will have you up past your bedtime to discover its thrilling endgame Eric Blehm, author of FearlessForget your spy novels, heres how this stuff really works Two secret agents quietly enter the enemy camp, unarmed but for their wit and experience Hiding in plain sight, they rescue six virtual hostages under the eyes of their captors, a covert operation seemingly devised in Central Casting Now their story can be told and it makes for one hell of read.Peter Earnest, retired CIA officer and Executive Director, International Spy MuseumThis true spy story has it all guile, audacity, and bravery in a struggle with a fanatic and lethal enemy, a crucial role played by a loyal ally, and a marvelous conspiracy with Hollywood.R James Woolsey, former director of the Central Intelligence AgencyArtist spy Tony Mendez paints a dramatic portrait of unlikely collaboratorsHollywood, the CIA and Canadaallied in the common cause of freedom Mendez fills Argo with the drama, pressure and tension of one of CIAs most spectacular rescue operations ARGO is proof that espionage reality is riveting than spy fiction.Robert Wallace, former director, CIA Office of Technical ServiceTony Mendez is a spys spy His work saved my neck on numerous occasions I laugh quietly to myself when I watch Hollywoods version of disguise technology in todays spy moviesbecause Tony did it better What he did in the Argo operation was spine tingling espionage at its very best.James M Olson, former director of CIA Counterintelligence ARGO is a must read to understand how dangerous risks have been successfully managed by men and women like Tony Mendez operating in secrecy for our protection.William H Webster, former director, Central Intelligence and Federal Bureau of Investigation Welcome on ARGO welcome the international argo program homepageArgo takes pulse of ocean, collecting and distributing information temperature salinity using a Argo Kingsford s Corn Starch Over Years QualityKILA Recipe Search Smart Routing cloudflare Argo Globally accelerate your traffic Cloudflare modern navigation system for Internet The public uses best effort delivery without accounting real time conditions while making routing decisions Home is forward looking organization, continuously aiming at tailoring innovating its 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    • Argo: How the CIA and Hollywood Pulled Off the Most Audacious Rescue in History
    • 3.1
    • 247
    • Format Kindle
    • 320 pages
    • 0147509734
    • Matt Baglio
    • Anglais
    • 08 June 2017

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