⇆ Today Show ⌓ The Peloponnesian War ⇡ By Donald Kagan ∨

⇆ Today Show ⌓ The Peloponnesian War  ⇡ By Donald Kagan ∨ ⇆ Today Show ⌓ The Peloponnesian War ⇡ By Donald Kagan ∨ INTRODUCTIONFor almost three decades at the end of the fifth century b.c the Athenian Empire fought the Spartan Alliance in a terrible war that changed the Greek world and its civilization forever Only a half century before its outbreak the united Greeks, led by Sparta and Athens, had fought off an assault by the mighty Persian Empire, preserving their independence by driving Persia s armies and navies out of Europe and recovering the Greek cities on the coasts of Asia Minor from its grasp.This astonishing victory opened a proud era of growth, prosperity, and confidence in Greece The Athenians, especially, flourished, increasing in population and establishing an empire that brought them wealth and glory Their young democracy came to maturity, bringing political participation, opportunity, and political power even to the lowest class of citizens, and their novel constitution went on to take root in other Greek cities It was a time of extraordinary cultural achievement, as well, probably unmatched in originality and richness in all of human history Dramatic poets like Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes raised tragedy and comedy to a level never surpassed The architects and sculptors who created the Parthenon and other buildings on the Acropolis in Athens, at Olympia, and all over the Greek world powerfully influenced the course of Western art and still do so today Natural philosophers like Anaxagoras and Democritus used unaided human reason to seek an understanding of the physical world, and such pioneers of moral and political philosophy as Protagoras and Socrates did the same in the realm of human affairs Hippocrates and his school made great advances in medical science, and Herodotus invented historiography as we understand it today.The Peloponnesian War not only brought this remarkable period to an end, but was recognized as a critical turning point even by those who fought it The great historian Thucydides tells us that he undertook his history as the war began,in the belief that it would be great and noteworthy above all the wars that had gone before, inferring this from the fact that both powers were then at their best in preparedness for war in every way, and seeing the rest of the Hellenic people taking sides with one side or the other, some at once, others planning to do so For this was the greatest upheaval that had ever shaken the Hellenes, extending also to some part of the barbarians, one might say even to a very large part of mankind 1.1.2 1From the perspective of the fifth century Greeks the Peloponnesian War was legitimately perceived as a world war, causing enormous destruction of life and property, intensifying factional and class hostility, and dividing the Greek states internally and destabilizing their relationship to one another, which ultimately weakened their capacity to resist conquest from outside It also reversed the tendency toward the growth of democracy When Athens was powerful and successful, its democratic constitution had a magnetic effect on other states, but its defeat was decisive in the political development of Greece, sending it in the direction of oligarchy.The Peloponnesian War was also a conflict of unprecedented brutality, violating even the harsh code that had previously governed Greek warfare and breaking through the thin line that separates civilization from savagery Anger, frustration, and the desire for vengeance increased as the fighting dragged on, resulting in a progression of atrocities that included maiming and killing captured opponents throwing them into pits to die of thirst, starvation, and exposure and hurling them into the sea to drown Bands of marauders murdered innocent children Entire cities were destroyed, their men killed, their women and children sold as slaves On the island of Corcyra, now called Corfu, the victorious faction in a civil war brought on by the larger struggle butchered their fellow citizens for a full week Sons were killed by their father, and suppliants dragged from the altar or slain upon it 3.81.2 5.As the violence spread it brought a collapse in the habits, institutions, beliefs, and restraints that are the foundations of civilized life The meanings of words changed to suit the bellicosity Reckless audacity came to be considered the courage of a loyal ally prudent hesitation, specious cowardice moderation was held to be a cloak for unmanliness Religion lost its restraining power, but the use of fair phrases to arrive at guilty ends was in high reputation Truth and honor disappeared, and society became divided into camps in which no man trusted his fellow 3.82.1, 8 3.83.1 Such was the conflict that inspired Thucydides mordant observations on the character of war as a savage schoolmaster that brings the characters of most people down to the level of their current circumstances 3.82.2.Although the Peloponnesian War ended than twenty four hundred years ago it has continued to fascinate readers of every subsequent age Writers have used it to illuminate the First World War, most frequently to help explain its causes, but its greatest influence as an analytical tool may have come during the Cold War, which dominated the second half of the twentieth century, and which likewise witnessed a world divided into two great power blocs, each under a powerful leader Generals, diplomats, statesmen, and scholars alike have compared the conditions that led to the Greek war with the rivalry between NATO and the Warsaw Pact.But the story of what actually took place two and a half millennia in the past, and its deeper meaning, are ultimately not easy to grasp By far the most important source of our knowledge is the history written by the war s contemporary and participant Thucydides His work is justly admired as a masterpiece of historical writing and hailed for its wisdom about the nature of war, international relations, and mass psychology It has also come to be regarded as a foundation stone of historical method and political philosophy It is not, however, completely satisfactory as a chronicle of the war and all that the war can teach us Its most obvious shortcoming is that it is incomplete, stopping in midsentence seven years before the war s end For an account of the final part of the conflict we must rely on writers of much less talent and with little or no direct knowledge of events At the very least, a modern treatment of accessible scope is needed to make sense of the conclusion of the war.But even the period treated by Thucydides requires illumination if the modern reader is to have the fullest understanding of its military, political, and social complexities The works of other ancient writers and contemporary inscriptions discovered and studied in the last two centuries have filled gaps and have sometimes raised questions about the story as Thucydides tells it Finally, any satisfactory history of the war also demands a critical look at Thucydides himself His was an extraordinary and original mind, and than any other historian in antiquity he placed the highest value on accuracy and objectivity We must not forget, however, that he was also a human being with human emotions and foibles In the original Greek his style is often very compressed and difficult to understand, so that any translation is by necessity an interpretation The very fact that he was a participant in the events, over, influenced his judgments in ways that must be prudently evaluated Simply accepting his interpretations uncritically would be as limiting as accepting without question Winston Churchill s histories and his understanding of the two world wars in which he played so important a role.In this book I attempt a new history of the Peloponnesian War designed to meet the needs of readers in the twenty first century It is based on the scholarship employed in my four volumes on the war aimed chiefly at a scholarly audience,2 but my goal here is a readable narrative in a single volume to be read by the general reader for pleasure and to gain the wisdom that so many have sought in studying this war I have avoided making comparisons between events in it and those in later history, although many leap to mind, in the hope that an uninterrupted account will better allow readers to draw their own conclusions.I undertake this project after so many years because I believe, than ever, that the story of the Peloponnesian War is a powerful tale that may be read as an extraordinary human tragedy, recounting the rise and fall of a great empire, the clash between two very different societies and ways of life, the interplay of intelligence and chance in human affairs, and the role of brilliantly gifted individuals, as well as masses of people in determining the course of events while subject to the limitations imposed upon them by nature, by fortune, and by one another I hope to demonstrate, also, that a study of the Peloponnesian War is a source of wisdom about the behavior of human beings under the enormous pressures imposed by war, plague, and civil strife, and about the potentialities of leadership and the limits within which it must inevitably operate.1Adapted from the translation of Richard Crawley Modern Library, New York, 1951 Throughout, references are to Thucydides history of the Peloponnesian War unless otherwise indicated The numbers refer to the traditional divisions by book, chapter, and section.2These have been published by the Cornell University Press Their titles are The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War 1969 , The Archidamian War 1974 , The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition 1981 , and The Fall of the Athenian Empire 1987.The best account of the Peloponnesian War now available Los Angeles Times Book Review A fresh, clear and fast moving account for general readers The New York Times Book Review Drawing on incomparable knowledge as a classicist, international relations theorist and military historian, Donald Kagan has devoted a single volume to guiding us through that epic of miscalculation, hubris and strategic overreach, supplyingsupplemental observations and correctives to Thucydides classic History of the Peloponnesian War The Washington Post Peloponnesian War Wikipedia The Peloponnesian BC was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led Athens against Sparta Historians have traditionally divided into three phases HISTORY Aug , a warrior society in Greece that reached height of its power after defeating rival city state Summary, Causes, Facts Britannica records eclipses during War, which began bce and lasted for years first these solar obscuration occurred summer year calculated date August Livius name conflict between broke out continued, with interruption, until forced to dismantle empire History History Histories is historical account The Donald Kagan very model classic work gifted writer narrative gift bring alive old However, it takes than good writing make book World Khan Academy YouTube Nov An overview including Archidamian Athenian attack on Syracuse, Decelean Missed previous lesson states It from ended up losing war, bringing end golden age Ancient video Academy If you re seeing this message, means we having trouble loading external resources classicsmit By Thucydides Written BCE Translated Richard Crawley has been following sections First Book k Second Third FourthDonald Help us improve our Author Pages updating your bibliography submitting new or current image biography Robert Robert e n born September neoconservative American historian foreign policy commentator Kagan, however prefers term liberal interventionist describe himself Some characterized his approach FREE shipping qualifying offers For decades fifth century bc world torn apart bya as This how fascism comes America Washington Post senior fellow at Brookings Institution contributing columnist Post Jews Back Supreme Court Interview With Kevin Jews MacDonald PhD Profiles In Jewish Supremacy, Interviews, Interviews JEWS BACK KAGAN FOR SUPREME COURT INTERVIEW WITH KEVIN MACDONALD Home Banner Witcoff Aseet Patel writes article value software patents Alice Today s General Counsel Sarah A comments recent Federal Circuit ruling blocking Law Jeffrey Chang volunteers teach DC public school students about Constitution Witcoff represents firm client Current Members United States Clarence Thomas, Associate Justice, Pinpoint community near Savannah, Georgia June He attended Conception Seminary received AB cum laude, Holy Cross College JD Yale School Kagan recuses immigrant detention case SCOTUSblog fate high profile challenge prolonged immigrants facing deportation without bond hearing appeared less certain tonight, announcement made over month oral argument Justice Elena would no longer participate herself Arizona TheHill recusal breaks her decision hear president 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CLCV Professor explains why people should study Greeks argues are wo C SPAN Watch SPAN collection videos, access clips appearances View positions held along brief bio Introduction Open Yale About Sterling Classics University former dean College, he Ohio Feel Well Health Center Family practicing Family Medicine doctor Plantsville, CT Democracy Have Had Its Day WSJ engaging one farewell lecture here Thursday afternoon, scholar Physician Assistant specialist North Detailed information Haven CT, overview, profile, medical licenses, affiliate hospitals, group practices, practice locations PA Appointment Healthgrades reviews, insurance, experience booking Call appointment today War written Great Dialogue Politica National Endowment the Education democracy ought goal civics, education citizens, says University, where taught thirty Barnes His four volume leading scholarly subject also author many books modern topics almost Whitepages phone numbers, addresses, records, background check reports 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    • The Peloponnesian War
    • 3.1
    • 260
    • Belle reliure
    • 544 pages
    • 0142004375
    • Donald Kagan
    • Anglais
    • 08 July 2017

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