ा [PDF]-Free Read ← Young Benjamin Franklin: The Birth of Ingenuity ० E-Pub Author Nick Bunker য

ा [PDF]-Free Read ← Young Benjamin Franklin: The Birth of Ingenuity  ० E-Pub Author Nick Bunker য ा [PDF]-Free Read ← Young Benjamin Franklin: The Birth of Ingenuity ० E-Pub Author Nick Bunker য Prologue The Enigmatic Seer Behold, all alive, one of the ancestors of modern America Auguste Rodin, 1910 on the bust of Franklin by Jean Antoine Houdon Before we share the story of his origins and early years, we begin with a glance at the man as he was late in life Benjamin Franklin, the affable sage, in the Paris where he played the role of diplomat With his long hair, his paunch, and his spectacles, he delighted his hosts in France with a manner that conveyed serenity as well as charm Some of us can do gravitas, and some of us can do joie de vivre, but the Franklin of 1780 could do both It was a rare combination, and all the exceptional because it seemed to come so easily As Americas envoy to the court of Versailles, Franklin could hush the chatter in a salon merely by pausing for a long while before he replied to a question An oracle at peace with himself, or so it seemed, Franklin was always friendly and polite but also rather distant and reserved Here was a sage who could be funny when he chose, but somehow never lose his aura of gentility Partly the secret lay in his build, stricken though he was by arthritis and the gout In his prime, Franklin had been broad shouldered and muscular, an inch or two under six feet tall Even now at seventy, leaning on a cane, he struck one French observer as a very big man with an excellent figure Although Franklin would lounge for hours over breakfast, reading the news from the war with the British, the long legs that stretched out across the floor were still firm and shapely a very handsome leg, one visitor recalled Besides the long pauses, which made the big American seem so august and sublime, Franklin had another way to be inscrutable Unlike most public men of advancing years, he rarely bored his listeners with tales of past achievements, and least of all did he speak about his boyhood and his youth This was true of his correspondence as well as his conversation When we turn to his letters, surviving in the thousands, we meet a Franklin who took the utmost pride in his grammar, his spelling, and the rhythm of his prose, but we will mostly search in vain for intimate details of his early years Instead they show us a practical, up to date Franklin, for whom historyincluding his ownalways seemed to matter far less than the future And so besides the dignity and the gravitas, Franklin also had a touch of mystery By saying so little about his past, he maintained his aura of reserve, and he did it so well that it has endured until the present day After a lifetimes study of the man, scholars sometimes come away feeling that Franklin will always slip through our fingers He kept a kind of inner core of himself intact and unapproachable, wrote Edmund Morgan, the historian from Yale, in one of the finest books about him In Franklins own era, those who tried to grapple with the sage often found him even elusive Whether they loved or hated Dr Franklin, they could simply never pin him down Where had he come from That they knewfirst Boston, and then Philadelphiabut it was hardly much to go on What were his origins Who were his family How had he become the genius he was Today when we look for answers to these questions we simply open his autobiography, written in fits and starts over the space of twenty years There we find a very different Franklin, a man who loved to delve into his roots but in his lifetime he chose to keep the book from the public eye Not until 1791, the year after his death, did the first edition of his memoirs appear in print Even then it was only a French translation and it was incomplete As far as the outside world was concerned, his career had begun with a flash and a bang in 1751, whenat the age of forty fivehe published the first edition of his scientific papers, Experiments and Observations on Electricity, with his startling theory that electricity and lightning were identical After that Franklin was rarely out of the news, as he played his many parts as scientist, politician, ambassador, and rebel His earlier life was something else entirely provincial, obscure, and all but impossible to reach In the Philadelphia of the Revolution, there were aging citizens who remembered Franklin the printer, bent over the proofs of The Pennsylvania Gazette, but that was a very long time ago and the details were hard to recover Three decades had gone by since he ceased to be the papers editor Although everyone knew Franklin as the author of The Way to Wealth, with its maxims and its jokes culled from his annual, Poor Richards Almanack, even that was something whose origins were lost from view In its heyday in the 1740s, the almanac had a circulation of ten thousand, but it was a product people kept for a few years and then discarded how could they know that one day the author would be famous As for his early journalism, written when he was a teenager in Boston, it had been forgotten long ago Bylines had yet to be invented, and so his youthful columns disappeared into the archives, dusty and anonymous, to be rediscovered only in the nineteenth century With his memoirs still hidden away so discreetly, Franklins public image was very different from the picture we now have of him For us he will always be the teenage runaway made good, a whimsical fellow with his gadgets and his jokes In his lifetime, when they encountered the elderly Franklin what most people saw was a mountain of a man, whose sense of humor took a distant second place to his weighty achievements in science and public affairs It was as if they had beheld another Moses a prophet from Sinai, bearing his tablets of stone, wrapped in a cloud that concealed the sources of his energy From time to time, however, Franklin would meet a shrewd observer who could see behind the mask of serenity Among the many portraits that survive, perhaps the best is the marble bust made in Paris in 1779 by a French sculptor, Jean Antoine Houdon, whose powers of insight were superb With that unflinching realism for which the French are famous, he shows us a hero with a hinterland a patriarch whose wisdom is the product of hard labor At first sight the bust gives us a classical figure, a philosopher king of the kind that Plato hoped to see ruling his ideal city The dignity is there and so is the reserve In the firmness of his gaze, we see the Franklin who had been an athlete in his youth an excellent swimmer and a fine boxer who knew how to fell an opponent with an upper cut to the jaw But if we walk around the bust, and peer at it closely, the image becomes as subtle and complex as the man it sought to portray Houdon did not mean to flatter or to be a toady Instead the artist gives us what he found before his eyes an old man with a sagging chin The long hair is an old mans hair, falling over Franklins collar like a clump of dry seaweed on a rock Although his jowls are heavy with flesh, in places the cheeks have sunk into hollows to reveal the skull beneath, as if to signify the imminence of death Most skillfully of all, Houdon has shown the mouth tightly set, with pursed lips and a sense of strain Perhaps the oracle is deep in thought or perhaps he is trying to suppress a fit of anger While Franklin hoped to be seen as the affable sage, a hero who bore his grandeur with ease, the artist gives us someone else entirely a Franklin who has achieved his gravitas only by way of a long campaign for self control More than a hundred years later, another French sculptor, Auguste Rodin, hailed the bust as a masterpiece in which Houdon captured aspects of Franklin that the sage preferred to conceal In what he called Franklins long apostolic hair, Rodin found the homespun wisdom of Poor Richard in the large, obstinate forehead, the sculptor had shown courage and self reliance, but in the eyes, the mouth, and the sheer bulk of Franklins mighty head, Rodin also saw the hard common sense of the calculator With his jowls and his furrowed brow, this is the Franklin who had been a tradesman In a century when to count as a dignitary you were supposed to be born to grandeur, and to show no signs of strain, Franklin was an oddity a man who had risen to fame after an early career filled with the daily grind of business The successes of his life required long years of effort with his science, with his books or in the printing shop, always on a deadline, where the work was exhausting and repetitive and subject to the foibles of the market Many printers went bankrupt, and most of those whom Franklin knew died young For businesspeople in the 1700s, an age without a safety net, life could be precarious than we can readily imagine A storm in the Atlantic, a crisis in the markets in London, a war in the West Indies, or a failed harvest of tobaccoany one of these could spell commercial disaster If you were in business in colonial America, calamity lay just around the corner In the bust that Houdon made, we see a survivor of adversity who always knew how close he had come to failure In his years of stardom, when people told him what a genius he was, Franklin would enjoy the compliments but remain aloof partly because he had diplomacy to do, but also because he knew that his career might easily have ended in oblivion Time and again in his early life Franklin had seen the sorry fate of other young men, his friends or his rivals, who had fallen by the wayside, victims of smallpox, alcohol, or promiscuity or simply destroyed by bad luck when the market turned against them Why had he gone on to be a success, while so many others dropped down into ruin This became the central theme of Franklins memoirs, but he did not wish to have it explored by his readers until he was safely in the grave Witty he might be, but Franklin was also a deeply serious man, conscious of the task he had to fulfill in building a new American republic It would not have been helpful to give his rivals or his enemies, and not only the British, too many clues to the secrets of his past In his youth he had made embarrassing mistakes Franklin listed in his memoirs those he was willing to confess His life had also contained long detours and delays, so that he had to wait far too long to find his true vocation as a scientist In his century, a man or woman of forty was already far advanced in middle age, but not until Franklin was turning forty one could he begin his sustained experiments with physics With his pioneering work with electricity, Franklin became the Amer ican heir of Sir Isaac Newton, helping to engineer another scientific revolution, not quite as profound as Sir Isaacs but close enough and still immensely fruitful In the process, Franklin gave birth to the systematic study of science in America, as a program of disciplined research by a team and not a mere hobby for clergymen or lawyers working alone in their spare time But as Franklin also knew, the pursuit of science placed severe demands on its practitioners First he had to master the technical literature Next he had to find the apparatus, or build it for himself and then, as he made his observations, Franklin had to devise a new scientific language to make sense of what he saw After four years of trial and error, and thousands of hours of concentrated thought, Franklin produced his masterpiece, his electrical essays but how many people truly understood the scale of his achievement Only Franklin knew the obstacles that he had overcome, and they were not a subject for casual talk around the dinner table Like a veteran who comes back from a war but does not wish to speak about it, because he fears that the civilians will never understand what combat means, he did not wish to dwell in conversation on the rigors of his early life Another thing was this Franklin also knew how old he was and that the world of his youth bore little likeness to the civilized America in which his fellow rebels had come to maturity George Washington, the Adamses, John Hancock, and the rest they were all far younger Whatever they had seen by way of wars and politics and hardship, they had never known the world he had experienced as a boy When Franklin was born in 1706, the last of the Stuarts still occupied the throne of England, and the colonies were only a few generations old, often raw and uncouth, with traces of barbarism In the Boston of his childhood, every day in the street he would see men still in the prime of life who had helped to hang the Salem witches As for Philadelphia, in his youth it was not far away from being a frontier post When Franklin first entered the city, at just seventeen, people could still remember a time when settlers lived in caves by the Delaware If the world of Franklins boyhood seems remote, the England that his family inhabited feels like something lost forever in a mist Fascinated though he was by his ancestry, Franklin gives us in his memoirs only a brief account of his father, Josiah, and the rest of his forebears This would not pose a problem if the Franklins had been just another poor, downtrodden family from some quaint little hamlet where nothing much happened from year to year If that were so, the tale of the English Franklins would tell us very little about the sources of Franklins genius In fact, when we investigate his origins, we find that long before he was born the Franklins were already talented people on the move Excellent craftsmen, and highly ambitious, they emerged from a part of rural England where, even in the seventeenth century, there were clusters of science and technology, and local people of learning with whom they came to be friends There and in London, where they went to work, the Franklins laid the foundations for Benjamins career in America Reading books and hearing preachers, plying their trade and acquiring the skills they needed, as time went by the Franklins built a family endowment not a trust fund consisting of cash or stocks and bonds but instead a repertoire of ideas and expertise In 1683, when Josiah Franklin arrived in Boston, he was a refugee, political and religious, in search of asylum at a time of crisis in the mother country With him on the boat, Josiah carried a cultural legacy that he would bequeath to his children a legacy defined by the word ingenuity If Franklin had a favorite noun, it was this one, a term that conveyed in the eighteenth century a far richer meaning than it carries today In one form or another, the words ingenious and ingenuity appear seventeen times in his memoirs, used by Franklin to describe his father, his uncles, and all the other people he respected When Franklin spoke of ingenuity, he had in mind a quality of being with as many facets as he had himself It was a hybrid virtue, a blend of many different ingredients intellect, of course, but also imagination and skills with the hand and with the eye as well as with the brain Ingenuity required not only diligence and learning but also an element of playfulness and sociability Once achieved, it could be a source of happiness as well as a way to make money Everyone would want to meet ingenious people, because they were fascinating, fun to be with, and filled with curiosity Their ingenuity might also take them up the social ladder, because the qualities they had, of wit, variety, and flair, were those that a gentleman was meant to possess and a lady, too, if only she were given the opportunity to shine Adopted from the Latin, the word had been current in English for centuries, but suddenly, in the 1650s and the 1660s, a moment arrived when ingenuity became the height of fashion When Josiah was a boy, at the time when Newton was making his earliest discoveries, it seemed that an age of ingenuity was dawning, an era of progress and invention, with the English poised to take the leador so it seemed to themas the worlds most ingenious people And so the word was endlessly repeated, in books and pamphlets and in poetry Josiah brought it with him to the colonies, where the pursuit of ingenuity became the guiding principle of Benjamin Franklins career None of this came easily in an era when, however brilliant they were, people from the social rank of the Franklins had the odds stacked against them by a culture of deference, on both sides of the Atlantic, that only the most determined men and women could surmount The Franklins always strove to be ingenious For a while they were so successful that they briefly won acceptance as members of the gentry Even so, in England their luck ran out, so that their quest for advancement ended in frustration In America Josiah Franklin had to work still harder to secure his familys future On arrival he was treated as a nobody In Boston it took Josiah than twenty years to win the esteem his brothers had fleetingly enjoyed at home All of this left its mark on his son In Benjamin Franklins early life, his principal emotions were ambition and the fear of failure He wanted to be ingenious and he wanted to be a gentleman in his eyes the two things went together Desperate to be successful, Franklin pushed himself hard, waging long battles against the temptations that ruined so many young people By the time he came to Paris, Franklin knew how to pretend that he was always serene But as Houdon the sculptor saw so well, behind the charm of the affable sage there lay a life with many layers an odyssey complete with episodes of guilt and phases of anxiety This portrait of the scientist as a young man begins with an incident of strife that occurred a hundred years before his birth It took place in the heart of Shakespeares England, where the Franklins were a family of upstarts.The Franklin that emerges hereis dynamic and real than his homespun alias Poor Richard ever could be Sam Kean, Wall Street Journal To pass yourself off as a self made man is to head off questions about your origins Nick Bunker is wise enough not to take Franklin at his word and resourceful enough to have unearthed his familys past The result is a robust, graceful half life, a portrait of the young Franklin that casts fresh light on his energy, his boundless curiosity, his passion for the newand the self made Stacy Schiff, Pulitzer Prize winning author of Cleopatra A Life and The Witches Salem, 1692 Make room on the top shelf of all Franklin biographies Bunker here provides a stunning reappraisal of Americas most self created genius, loaded with Franklinesque wisdom on every page, carried forward on the wings of words that simply sing Joseph Ellis, Pulitzer Prize winning author of The Quartet Orchestrating the Second American Revolution, 1783 1789and Founding Brothers The Revolutionary Generation It is nearly impossible to say anything new about Benjamin Franklin, but Nick Bunker has done it brilliantly with this study of the young Franklin An extraordinary achievement Gordon S Wood, Pulitzer Prize winning author of Friends Divided John Adams and Thomas Jeffersonand Alva O Way University Professor, Brown University No Founding Father worked harder than Benjamin Franklin to establish a reputation as that most American and enigmatic of types the self made man But as Nick Bunker brilliantly demonstrates in this fascinating new biography of the scientist as a conflicted young man, Franklins pastin particular his familys past in Englandfollowed him every step of the way Nathaniel Philbrick, author of In the Heart of the Sea and Valiant Ambition Shockingly original, thoroughly researched, and strikingly well written, Young Benjamin Franklin has something for everyone It s the best book on Franklin in than a decade Nick Bunker has once again made the familiar strange and wondrous David Waldstreicher, Distinguished Professor of History at The Graduate Center, City University of New York, and author of Runaway America Benjamin Franklin, Slavery and the American Revolution A vibrant, perspicacious, and well researched portrait of a man hungry for knowledge and ambitious for financial success Bunker adroitly describes Franklin s involvement in the religious and political controversies of the day, including slavery, as well as in the scientific projects for which he became renowned An engaging, illuminating biography of a captivating figure Kirkus Starred Review Bunker re creates a life of restless ambition as he recounts how Benjamin Franklin finds in Philadelphia the opportunity he has been seeking for deploying the printing expertise and rhetorical skills he acquired while coming of age in Boston A nuanced portrait of the young Franklin captures the fugitive genius of a quintessential American Booklist Starred Review Nick Bunker again provides an unusual look at American history with this accessible and riveting account of the ancestry and early life of Ben Franklin Bunkers diligent research and reconstruction of events from myriad sources were necessitated by Franklins own misleading writings The result is a deep, nuanced examination of the formative influences on an iconic American figure Publishers Weekly Starred Review Benjamin Franklin Wikipedia Benjamin was born on Milk Street, in Boston, Massachusetts, January and baptized at Old South Meeting House He one of seventeen children to Josiah Franklin, ten by s second wife, Abiah Folger the daughter Peter Foulger Mary MorrillAmong siblings were his older Young Printer Childhood of Famous Americans Augusta Stevenson FREE shipping qualifying offers One most popular series ever published for young American s, these The Birth Ingenuity millions other books are available instant accessKindle Audible Biography, Inventions, Facts printer publisher, author, inventor scientist, diplomat foremost Founding Fathers, he helped draft Declaration Independence also made important contributions science, especially understanding technology Biography Biography Find out about Father role Revolution, as well scientific discoveries, inventions institutions Quotes Mark Quotes quotes assorted quotations related Revolution Quick US History Boston , tenth son soap maker, mother Folger, wife In all, would father intended enter into clergy However, could only BENJAMIN FRANKLIN World history story Colonies break from British Empire with an emphasis it leaders causes Lexington Yorktown Main Page Timeline Life Born youngest Style reckoning Final formal year schooling Major international interactive exhibition Philadelphia city wide celebration honoring genius witNick Bunker Nick is author three non fiction books, including An On Edge How Britain Came Fight America, which a finalist Pulitzer Prize History won George Washington Lowe Jesus Cool Music Product Description marks th anniversary seminal album album, released Pure Pop Now People, beginning storied influential solo careers pop music true emergence songwriting 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    • Young Benjamin Franklin: The Birth of Ingenuity
    • 2.3
    • 143
    • Format Kindle
    • 1101874414
    • Nick Bunker
    • Anglais
    • 09 July 2016

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