⇰ Rule Makers, Rule Breakers: How Culture Wires Our Minds, Shapes Our Nations, and Drives Our Differences (English Edition) library ⪊ By Michele J Gelfand ⪥

⇰ Rule Makers, Rule Breakers: How Culture Wires Our Minds, Shapes Our Nations, and Drives Our Differences (English Edition) library ⪊ By Michele J Gelfand ⪥ ⇰ Rule Makers, Rule Breakers: How Culture Wires Our Minds, Shapes Our Nations, and Drives Our Differences (English Edition) library ⪊ By Michele J Gelfand ⪥ Rule Makers, Rule Breakers 1 A Cure for Chaos Imagine a world where people are always late Trains, buses, and airplanes dont abide by any fixed schedule In conversations, people interrupt each other frequently, get handsy with new acquaintances, and never make eye contact People wake up whenever they want and leave their houses with or without putting on clothes At restaurantswhich are open wheneverpeople demand food that isnt on the menu, chew with their mouths open, belch frequently, and, without asking, eat off of strangers plates Board a crowded elevator, and youll find people singing, shaking their wet umbrellas on each other, and facing the wrong direction In schools, students talk on their phones throughout lectures, pull pranks on the teachers, and cheat openly on exams On city streets, no one pays attention to stoplights, and people drive on both sides of the road Pedestrians litter heedlessly, steal strangers bicycles off racks, and curse loudly Sex isnt reserved for private settings like bedrooms it happens on public transportation, on park benches, and in movie theaters This is a world without social normsa world where people dont have any socially agreed upon standards of behavior Luckily, humansmuch than any other specieshave an uncanny ability to develop, maintain, and enforce social norms to avoid the above scenarios In fact, were a super normative species Without even realizing it, we spend a huge amount of our lives following social rules and conventionseven if the rules dont make any sense Consider a few examples In New York City on the last day of every year, millions of people stand in the freezing cold and cheer wildly at a ball dropping from a pole There are the equally bizarre New Years practices of eating twelve grapes at midnight with great passion in Spain, eating a spoonful of lentils for good luck in Chile, and filling barbed wire with flammable material and swinging it around ones head in Scotland And every year, thousands of people excitedly crowd into stadiums to cheer, holler, and even scream as they watch other people tackle each other, play music, or tell jokes These routines are mostly carried out in large groups, but many of our behaviors that are less crowd encouraged are just as odd Why do women wear a colorless white dress on one of the happiest days of their lives Why do people cut down perfectly good trees in December, decorate them, and then let them die in their living rooms In the United States, why do we forbid our children from talking to strangers but, on October 31, encourage them to put on costumes and roam the streets begging adults for candy Around the world we observe equally puzzling behaviors For example, why on certain days in India do millions of people joyfully gather to wade in a frigid, polluted river in celebration of Kumbh Mela From the outside, our social norms often seem bizarre, but from the inside, we take them for granted Some social norms are codified into regulations and laws obey stop signs dont steal someones bicycle others are unspoken dont stare at people on the train cover your mouth when you sneeze They can manifest in daily, mundane behaviors, such as putting clothes on or saying hello when you answer the phone and goodbye when you hang up Or they can take the form of the ritualistic, learned behaviors we perform at out of the ordinary, special occasions, such as the Kumbh Mela or Halloween Social norms are all around uswe follow them constantly For our species, conforming to social norms is as natural as swimming upstream is for a salmon Yet, ironically, while social norms are omnipresent, theyre largely invisible Many of us rarely notice how much of our behavior is driven by themor, important, how much theyre needed This is a great human puzzle How have we spent our entire lives under the influence of such powerful forces and not understood or even noticed their impact BORN TO RUN OR FOLLOW At what age would you guess children start picking up on social norms At age three, when many enter preschool, or at age five, when they go to kindergarten It turns out that our normative instincts manifest much earlier Studies show that babies follow norms and are willing to punish norm violators even before they have formal language In a groundbreaking study, researchers demonstrated that infants will indicate a clear preference for animal hand puppets that engage in socially normative behavior those that help other puppets open a box with a rattle inside and those that return a toy ball that another puppet has dropped relative to puppets that engage in antisocial behavior those that prevent other puppets from opening a box and who take toy balls away from them In fact, by the time were three years old, were actively berating norm violators In one study, two year olds and three year olds drew pictures or made clay sculptures next to two puppets who also made their own crafts When one of the puppets left, the other puppet began to destroy the picture or the sculpture that the puppet had made Two year olds seemed almost entirely unperturbed at seeing this, but approximately one quarter of the three year olds spoke up, saying to the rude puppet things like No, youre not supposed to do that Young children will declare their disapproval in situations that are not ethically charged as well After being taught a certain arbitrary behavior and then witnessing a puppet incorrectly imitating it, three year olds vigorously protested Quite clearly, children learn not only to interpret social norms from their environment, but also to actively shape and enforce them Humans have evolved to have a very sophisticated normative psychology that develops as soon as we leave the womb In fact, it makes us unique among species To their credit, many species do engage in highly sophisticated social learning The nine spined stickleback fish, for instance, will prioritize feeding spots where other fish are feeding over relatively empty locations Norway rats will eat food that they see a demonstrator rat eating And birds are also keenly attuned to their flocks didactic songs when making foraging decisions But theres no evidence so far that animals copy others for social reasons such as simply fitting in and belonging Researchers in Germany conducted a very creative experiment that illustrated just this point They designed a puzzle box with three compartments, each with a small hole at the top At the experiments beginning, subjectsboth young children and chimpanzeeslearned that dropping balls into one of the boxs compartments would get rewarded with a tasty snack Next, they were shown another child or chimpanzee interacting with the box, and they saw that he could get food after dropping pellets into a completely different compartment When the subjects took their turn at the puzzle box, an experimenter took note of where they dropped the balls Children often changed compartments to match the behavior of other children, especially when those children were watching them This suggests that children dont just change strategies because they think their peers strategy is better they also do it for social reasonsas a sign of affiliation and conformity By comparison, few chimps switched strategies to match the behavior of their fellow chimps Chimpanzees, like many nonhuman animals, might have the ability to learn from each other, but they dont generally apply that social learning absent a material benefit Only humans appear to follow social norms to be part of the group THE POWER OF SOCIAL NORMS Imagine youve signed up to participate in a psychological study After arriving at a laboratory, youre asked to sit in a room with about eight other participants The researcher comes in and gives each person a piece of paper showing one line on the left side of the page and multiple lines of differing lengths on the right side of the page labeled Line A, Line B, and Line C, as seen in Figure 1.1 He asks you all to determine independently which line on the right side of the page is the same length as the line on the left Its completely obvious to you that Line A is the correct answer He then calls on participants one by one to give their responses The other participants all answer Line B no one says Line A Youre the second to last person to state your answer Will you stick with A or switch to B If youd taken part in this experiment, its likely you would have questioned your judgment and agreed with the group at some point Thats what social psychologist Solomon Asch found when he ran this now classic study in 1956 In Aschs study, each participant, unbeknownst to them, was in a group made up of pretend research subjects, who were told to give a clearly incorrect answer on a number of trials Aschs results showed that out of the 123 participants across groups, three quarters sided with the group on at least one occasion That is, the majority changed their answers to match the wrong but popular choice Figure 1.1 Solomon Aschs line judgment task.The results of this quirky little experiment speak to a broader truth Without even realizing it, were all prone to following group norms that can override our sense of right and wrong Outside of the laboratory, we follow many norms that arguably seem irrelevant Take, for example, the handshake, arguably the most common mode of greeting people in the world Scholars speculate that the handshake may have originated in ancient Greece in the ninth century BC as a gesture designed to show a new acquaintance that you werent concealing any weapons Today, few of us walk around with axes or swords hidden under our sleeves, but the handshake continues to serve as a physical accompaniment to how we greet others Its original purpose disappeared, but the handshake remained Figure 1.2 Handshake between King Shalmaneser III of Assyria and a Babylonian ruler found on a ninth century BC relief.Perhaps even puzzling is that we sometimes follow social norms that are downright dangerous Take the festival of Thaipusam, a Hindu celebration engaged in by Tamil communities around the world As part of Thaipusam, participants take part in the Kavadi Attam, which means Burden Dance in English, and for good reason A testament of commitment to Lord Murugan, the Hindu god of war, the Kavadi requires people to choose their burden, or method of self inflicted pain Its fairly common, for example, to pierce ones skin, tongue, cheeks, or all three with vel skewersholy spears or hooks Others elect to wear a portable shrine, which is decorated and attached to the body with up to 108 vels piercing the skin On the island of Mauritius, which serves as a major site for the Thaipusam festival, participants must climb a mountain to reach the Temple of Murugan The trip is over four hours, during which participants must carry their burden while walking barefoot on uneven surfaces To make things difficult, some choose to conduct the entire walk while strapped to planks of nails Although few rituals can stack up to the torturous Kavadi Attam, many others are similarly arduous For example, in San Pedro Manrique, Spain, June 23 marks the beginning of a summer solstice ritual Each year, around three thousand spectators pack into the tiny village of six hundred residents to watch volunteers walk across twenty three feet of burning coals as part of a long standing local tradition Some people walk in fulfillment of a community vow, while others simply get caught up in the excitement Volunteers often carry relatives on their backs as they cross the white hot walkway, which can reach temperatures as high as twelve hundred degrees Fahrenheit After the ritual is over, people rejoice and celebrate for the rest of the night The question is, why do they do it THE TIES THAT BIND Whether its something simple like the handshake or a complex ritual like the Kumbh Mela, social norms are far from random Rather, they evolve for a highly functional reason Theyve shaped us into one of the most cooperative species on the planet Countless studies have shown that social norms are critical for uniting communities into cooperative, well coordinated groups that can accomplish great feats Social norms are, in effect, the ties that bind us together, and scientists have collected evidence to prove it For example, a team of anthropologists had a rare opportunity to study the actual physiology of the fire walking rituals attendees in San Pedro Manrique They strapped transmitter belts to fire walkers and attendees to measure their heart rates during the ritual The results showed a remarkable synchronization in the heart rates of ritual participants, as well as their friends and family in the audience Specifically, when participants hearts began to beat faster, their friends and families hearts also sped up Quite literally, the fire walking ritual resulted in many hearts beating as one, suggesting that rituals can increase community cohesion Some of the same anthropologists who studied heart rates during fire walking also conducted research on performers in the Kavadi Attam In these investigations, an experimenter approached participants immediately after their march and asked them how much theyd be willing to anonymously donate to their temple The result was a powerful testament to the social glue of ritual Those who performed in the Kavadi Attam donated significantly than did people whod been praying in the temple three days earlierabout 130 rupees as compared with 80 rupees, a difference equivalent to half a days salary for an unskilled worker We neednt travel to faraway places to see how following social norms, like participating in rituals, can increase group cohesion and cooperation In a series of experiments, psychologists put people into groups and then had them endure an unpleasant experience together They couldnt ask their participants to walk across hot coals or put skewers through their chests that would be a bit much for the ethics board , but they did ask them to stick their hands in ice water, do painful squats, or eat chili peppers together As compared with groups that didnt experience any collective painful experience, the groups that endured pain reported a remarkably higher sense of bonding They also cooperated much in subsequent economic games where each person in the group had opportunities to be selfish and take money for themselves Research also suggests that merely following the same exact routine with others is sufficient to increase cooperation In a study at New Zealands University of Otago, groups that marched around a stadium together in sync later put effort into a group task picking up coins scattered on the stadium floor as compared with those who walked at their own pace Being in sync with others actually enables us to coordinate to perform complex tasks In one study, pairs of participants who moved synchronously were later better able to work together to maneuver a ball through a challenging maze as compared to those who didnt These results tell us how extraordinarily important it is for human groups to follow social norms, especially if they want to succeed at collective activities that require good coordination, such as hunting, foraging, or warfare The fact is, human groups often follow social norms even when they dont appear to fulfill their original function Lets revisit the handshake Researchers from Harvard Business School have found that negotiators who shake hands are friendlier toward their negotiation partners and routinely generate better outcomes than those who dont By facilitating cooperation, handshakes, it seems, took on a vital social function even as their original purpose became obsolete COORDINATION, SUPERSIZED In the past, norms helped bind us to others in very small groups But today theyre critical for helping us coordinate on an extremely large scalewith thousands, if not millions, of people globally Every day, were collectively engaged in a colossal exercise in norm coordination We do it so effortlessly that we may take it for grantedcall it normative autopilot For instance, you stop when the light is red, and go when it turns green You get in the back of lines instead of cutting to the front When you enter a library, movie theater, elevator, or airplane, you quiet down, as do those around you This is coordination on a large scale, and social norms are the mechanism that enables us to do it Social norms are the building blocks of social order without them, society would crumble If people didnt abide by socially expected rules, their behavior would be unbearably unpredictable We wouldnt be able to coordinate our actions to do most anythingfrom getting place to place to having meaningful conversations to running a large organization Schools wouldnt function Police, if there were any, would be ineffective, given the lack of rules and shared standards for adhering to laws and respecting their authority Government services would cease to operate, resulting in the inability to provide the public with highways, sanitation services, clean water, or national defense Unable to control their employees behaviors, companies would quickly go out of business Without these shared standards of behavior, families would splinter apart Clearly, its in our interest to adhere to social norms Indeed, according to anthropologist Joseph Henrich, our survival as a species has depended on it Lets face it Physically, humans are quite weak compared with many other species Were not very fast, dont have good camouflage abilities, have poor climbing skills, and dont hear or see particularly well, Henrich argues in The Secret of Our Success How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter Wed soon perish if we were stranded on an island with little food or protection from predators Then how did we end up eating other animals rather than being eaten Henrich makes an important point We cant just credit our high IQs If we were stranded alone on that island, our advanced ability to reason wouldnt save us Rather, when people have thrived in the face of adversity, theyve done so because of other people and the social norms theyve created together Social norms have helped us cooperate for millennia Groups that have cooperated have been able to not only survive the toughest environmental conditions, but also thrive and spread across the entire planet in ways that no other nonhuman species has Indeed, we learned that if we dont follow our groups cultural norms, we end up in deep trouble Ignoring social norms not only can damage our reputations, but also may result in ostracism, even death From an evolutionary perspective, people who developed keen abilities to follow social norms may have been likely to survive and thrive This powerful fact has made us a remarkably cooperative speciesbut only so long as the interactions are between people who share the same basic norms When groups with fundamentally different cultural mind sets meet, conflict abounds Thus the paradox While norms have been the secret to our success, theyre also the source of massive conflict all around the world.Groundbreaking Anyone interested in our cultural divides will find tremendous insight in Rule Makers, Rule Breakers Steven Pinker, Johnstone Professor of Psychology, Harvard University, and author of Enlightenment NowRemarkable Not just an enlightening book but a game changing one By uncovering the inner workings of tight and loose cultures, Rule Makers, Rule Breakers suddenly makes sense of the puzzling behavior we see all around us in colleagues, family, and even ourselves Carol Dweck, bestselling author of MindsetCompletely fascinating Gelfand reveals how political divides, happiness and suicide rates, and the coexistence of crime and creativity can all be traced to a fundamental but neglected dimension of social norms You ll never look at a workplace, a country, or a family the same way again Adam Grant, bestselling author of Originals, Give and Take, and Option B with Sheryl Sandberg A brilliant and timely book Michele Gelfand has exposed a universal fault line running beneath nations, states, organizations, and even families Cultures that face threat and uncertainty seek order and precision Cultures with firmer footings revel in ambiguity and risk taking This idea, at once so simple and so powerful, will forever change how you see the world Daniel H Pink, New York Times bestselling author of When and Drive This brilliant book is full of well documented insights that will change the way you look at yourself and at the world around you Gelfand presents a wealth of scientific evidence with a light touch that has the reader eager to know what comes next I can t think of anyone who won t learn something important from this book Barry Schwartz, bestselling author of The Paradox of Choice, Practical Wisdom, and Why We WorkDespite their great importance, the hidden factors that influence whether people comply with what is expected of them or write their own script has long gone underappreciated With this book, Michele Gelfand has done much to unravel the mysteries of human motivation Anyone interested in how social norms and, therefore, people operate will be grateful for her compelling analysis Robert Cialdini, bestselling author of Influence and Pre Suasion A fascinating and profound book by one of psychology s most creative researchers The well chosen facts and findings about different cultures will make you alternately laugh, nod, and moan and make you eager to read Beautifully written, packed with scientific facts and findings, this important book celebrates and explains the diversity of human culture It emphasizes a key dimension of cultural difference Some cultures pressure everyone to follow the same rules, while almost anything goes in other cultures and Gelfand carefully and impressively lays out the pluses and minuses of both types Anyone interested in the deep mysteries of human life and cultural diversity will find this book a rich source of information and a thought provoking challenge to common assumptions It s quite possibly this year s best book on culture Roy F Baumeister, bestselling co author of Willpower and author of The Cultural AnimalA fantastic book, academically anchored yet also fun to read and filled with practical implications Its beauty derives from the breadth of its insight as Gelfand focuses in to illuminate, in succession, countries, states, corporations, groups and individuals How many books pull off the feat of connecting clocks on city streets, to merger and acquisition outcomes, to groups that can both execute and explore What an achievement Michael L Tushman, co author of Winning Through Innovation and Lead and DisruptWhy do some countries enjoy internal peace, effective governance, and productive economies, while others are dysfunctional and impoverished In this dazzling book the cultural psychologist Michele Gelfand shows that a large part of the answer lies with social norms rules of behavior that enable coordination and cooperation in large scale societies When people don t abide by socially expected rules, families, businesses, and whole societies splinter apart But is there a downside to following the rules too closely Read Rule Makers, Rule Breakers to find out Peter Turchin, author of Ultrasociety How 10,000 Years of War Made Humans the Greatest Cooperators on EarthIs your world tight, or is it loose In this smart, provocative, and very entertaining book, Michele Gelfand argues that the tendency to devise and abide by rules, or, alternatively, push behavioral limits is the fundamental distinction between human societies, capturing what really matters in summing up the difference between Germany and Brazil, or Mississippi and California, or rich and poor Whether the arena is large or small a superpower summit, a boardroom meeting, or a backyard barbecue this insightful and stimulating work will help you better understand yourself and those around you Paul Bloom, professor of psychology, Yale University, author of Against Empathy The Case for Rational Compassion Rule Makers and Rule Breakers How Your Disposition But rule breakers run into their own problems, too, in large part because makers the world And this is way it has to be A full of would chaotic anarchistic We need have a lot create follow rules maintain order stability Report NFL uncomfortable with roughing days agoThe debate over what constitutes roughing passer dominated early portion season, people charge making amending for league sound like they are Makers, Anglais Apprentissage reveals how predict national variations around globe, why some leaders innovate others don t, even tight vs loose system can determine happiness Consistently riveting always illuminating, Michele Gelfand s book helps us understand single cultural trait dramatically affects or Takers Rowman Littlefield Part I Rules, Norms Standards takers An introduction TTIP, Daniel S Hamilton Jacques Pelkmans Rules American Thinker America will not confined within weak list country rules, if themselves made Tight Loose Loose Cultures Wire Our World on FREE shipping qualifying offers In celebrated psychologist takes an epic journey through human cultures Discussion Book Signing Dr Peter T Coleman As Perspectives Peace series, please join talk Thursday, September , from PM by Cure Chaos Imagine where late Trains, buses, airplanes t abide any fixed schedule conversations, interrupt each other frequently, get handsy new acquaintances, never make eye contact Centre European Exploring Transatlantic Trade Investment Partnership Edited ContributorsRule Distinguished University Professor Psychology at Maryland, College Park Her pioneering research norms been cited thousands times press, including The New York Times, Washington Post, Harvard Business Review, Science, NPRThe recipient numerous LATimes Crossword Corner Friday, July Susan Jul Title Dress your automobile success returns her second puzzle, th LAT, first Friday She found four standard components word being type apparel Best alternative negotiated agreement Wikipedia negotiation theory, best BATNA most advantageous course action party take negotiations fail cannot reached This could include diverse situation, such as suspension negotiations, transition another negotiating partner, appeal court ruling, BibMe Free Bibliography Citation Maker MLA, APA BibMe APA, Chicago, Southern California Genealogical Society Database Mega Multiple Surname Search Results Data First Baptist Church Wilson Louise Street, Glendale, table Value ethics ethics, value denotes degree importance thing action, aim determining actions do live normative describe significance different actionsWhat makes valuable may turn depend ethic values objects increases, decreases alters object MISSING KNOWN DECEASED CLASSMATES MISSSING AND LIST OF CLASSMATES IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT US Postal Service unexpectedly levied per piece fee retrieve our undelivered bulk mail fliers Society Industrial Organizational Enter information below search sessions conference You last name author while dropdown Max Gerald Heffler Family Trees Names TexSys Persons Max Updated April Contact ha Rone Aharon Anat Nir Barak Brog Yoed Josephine Heitman Buddy Leon Elsa Fingerhut Fine Isadore Charles Iskey Rose Ysrael Israel Chaya Rachel Wasserman Klatchin Saturday, Andrew J Ries Themeless Saturday Puzzle Ries On Fourth Of we Americans celebrate declaration independence Ten later French friends Q uatorze Juillet or, Fourteenth which also refer Bastille Day That day celebrates storming infamous prison Grand List Arlington, Vermont Parcel ID Sub Name Num Location Description Page Span Acres Real Value TAYLOR AVENUE, LLC C O GREGORY MICHELE Broward College View link Faculty website one General department, title, location, phone email Listen Oral Arguments cacourts Audio Files Circuit oral argument audio files MP format posted Internet site next business began posting links May All Lawyers Lawyers, Attorneys Law firms California Top There lawyers CA listed under view all Robert Jackson Jr Antitrust Writing Awards Robert director Program Corporate Policy Columbia School His emphasizes empirical study executive compensation corporate governance matters execution strikes, termed authors find you looking Yankel Osherovich Klattskin Bessie beginning Revolution KOPROSKI Michele Maryland Psychologist Maryland Welcome my website, homepage Culture Lab am Affiliate RH Smith lead group scholars Social Decision Making Science area Editor Conflict Handbook Negotiation avg rating, ratings, reviews, published Co works Loyola citations reads, Supplementary Tables Figures expertise Engineering Similar uses variety methods vary consequence groups Conversation affiliate Scholar Teacher Cultural Tightness Looseness Perceptions Effective Mert Aktas Paul Hanges Toros University, Mersin, Turkey Park, MD, USA Journal Cross Cultural Vol Issue pp Values, Political Action, Change Middle East Values, Arab Spring Mansoor Moaddel Contributing advance insightful frameworks analyze vast data illuminated uprisings CNN, HuffPost By yahoo Seventeen years ago today, brought together nation flew flag, donated blood gathered candlelight vigils steps Capitol, Republicans Democrats Congress sang God Bless voice Opinion Scientific Case Against Muslim Ban Feb professor psychology Follow Times Opinion section Facebook Twitter NYTOpinion sign up Culture Extremism Correspondence concerning article should addressed Gelfand, Department Psychology, c Biology Building, MD e mjgelfand gmail A surprising reason rise ISIS opinion CNN Iraq Syria reflected craving social that underlies many authoritarian regimes, writes Negotiations Human Read chapter behavior forms nucleus military effectiveness Humans operating complex mil Discrimination Organizations Level W ORKING P APER ERIES Discrimination Systems Perspective Lisa H Nishii Jana L Raver Benjamin Schneider Rule Makers, Rule Breakers: How Culture Wires Our Minds, Shapes Our Nations, and Drives Our Differences (English Edition)


    • Rule Makers, Rule Breakers: How Culture Wires Our Minds, Shapes Our Nations, and Drives Our Differences (English Edition)
    • 1.2
    • 29
    • Format Kindle
    • 384 pages
    • Michele J Gelfand
    • Anglais
    • 02 March 2016

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