⫸ [PDF]-Free Download ↠ King Lear (Folger Shakespeare Library) ❒ Book By William Shakespeare ⇶

⫸ [PDF]-Free Download  ↠ King Lear (Folger Shakespeare Library)  ❒ Book By William Shakespeare ⇶ ⫸ [PDF]-Free Download ↠ King Lear (Folger Shakespeare Library) ❒ Book By William Shakespeare ⇶ William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare was born in April 1564 in the town of Stratford upon Avon, on Englands Avon River When he was eighteen, he married Anne Hathaway The couple had three childrenan older daughter Susanna and twins, Judith and Hamnet Hamnet, Shakespeares only son, died in childhood The bulk of Shakespeares working life was spent in the theater world of London, where he established himself professionally by the early 1590s He enjoyed success not only as a playwright and poet, but also as an actor and shareholder in an acting company Although some think that sometime between 1610 and 1613 Shakespeare retired from the theater and returned home to Stratford, where he died in 1616, others believe that he may have continued to work in London until close to his death.Barbara A MowatBarbara A Mowat is Director of Research emerita at the Folger Shakespeare Library, Consulting Editor of Shakespeare Quarterly, and author of The Dramaturgy of Shakespeares Romances and of essays on Shakespeares plays and their editing.King Lear An Introduction to This Text The play we call King Lear was printed in two different versions in the first quarter of the seventeenth century In 1608 appeared M William Shak speare His True Chronicle Historie of the life and death of King Lear and his three Daughters With the vnfortunate life of Edgar, sonne and heire to the Earle of Gloster, and his sullen and assumed humor of Tom of Bedlam This printing was a quarto or pocket size book known today as Q1 It is remarkable among early printed Shakespeare plays for its hundreds of lines of verse that are either erroneously divided or set as prose in addition, some of its prose is set as verse As Q1 was going through the press, it was extensively corrected thus different copies of its pages contain different readings Sometimes the correction appears to be competent at other times, however, it is better called miscorrection In 1619 appeared a second quarto printing of the play Q2 It was, for the most part, simply a reprint of Q1, but it contained many corrections as well as new errors and changes, especially in the lining of verse in the last scene or so of Act 4 and in Act 5 This second printing had exactly the same title as Q1, and it even retained on its title page the 1608 date of Q1 the true date of Q2s printing 1619 was not discovered until early in the twentieth century The second version to see print is found in the First Folio of Shakespeares plays, published in 1623 F Entitled simply The Tragedie of King Lear, F contains over 100 lines that are not in Q1 at the same time F lacks about 300 lines including a whole scene, 4.3 that are present in Q1 Many of the lines unique to Q1 or to F cluster together in quite extensive passages The Q1 and F versions also differ from each other in their readings of over 800 words In spite of the wide differences between the quarto and Folio printings, there is, nevertheless, such close agreement in punctuation between Q2 and F on some pages that the suspicion arises that the F typesetters may have referred to Q2 even if their copy was a manuscript Thus when F agrees with Q2 against Q1, editors sometimes suspect that F may have been led into error by Q2 see, for example, in the textual notes 1.4.32, 141 2.1.141 2.2.165 4.2.74, 96 4.6.299 4.7.68 5.3.186 In other cases, however, F agrees with Q2 in the correction of obvious or nearly obvious errors in Q1 see, for example, in the textual notes 1.1.163 1.4.327 1.5.8 2.1.13SD, 63 2.2.98, 152, 163, 171 2.4.121 186, 246 3.3.3 3.7.90 4.1.10 4.2.18 4.4.30 4.5.8 4.6.49, 53, 85, 100, 127, 286 5.1.63 5.2.5SD 5.3.30SD, 365, 370 Title page of the First Quarto of King Lear, 1608 facsimile From the 1623 First Folio Copy 54 in the Folger Shakespeare Library collection Since early in the eighteenth century, editors have combined Q1 and F to produce what is termed a conflated text But it is impossible in any edition to combine the whole of the two versions, because they often provide alternative readings that are mutually exclusive for example, when Q1 has the earl of Gloucester in his first speech refer to Lears planned division of the kingdoms, the Folio prints the singular kingdom In such cases and there are a great many such cases , editors must choose whether to be guided by Q1 or by F in selecting what to print Twentieth century editors of Shakespeare made the decision about which version of King Lear to prefer according to their theories about the origins of the early printed texts For the greater part of the century, editors preferred F to Q1 in the belief that the Q1 text originated either in a shorthand transcription of a performance or in a reconstruction of the play by actors who depended on their memories of their parts On the other hand, the F text was believed to have come down to us without the intervention of shorthand or memorial reconstruction In the past few decades, however, Q1 has found favor with some editors according to a theory that it was printed directly from Shakespeares own manuscript and that F was set into type from a version of the play that had been rehandled by another dramatist after Shakespeares retirement from the theater This second theory is today in competition with yet a third theory that holds that Q1 and F are distinct, independent Shakespearean versions of the play that ought never to be combined with each other in an edition Those who hold this third theory think that Q1 was printed from Shakespeares own manuscript, but they also think that the F text is the product of a revision of the play by Shakespeare after the printing of Q1 Nevertheless, as scholars reexamine all such narratives about the origins of the printed texts, we discover that the evidence upon which they are based is questionable, and we become skeptical about ever identifying with any certainty how the play assumed the forms in which it was printed The present edition is based upon a fresh examination of the early printed texts rather than upon any modern edition.I It offers its readers the Folio printing of King Lear.II But it offers an edition of the Folio because it prints such Q1 readings and such later editorial emendations as are, in the editors judgments, necessary to repair what may be errors and deficiencies in the Folio Further, the present edition also offers its readers all the passages and a number of the words that are to be found only in Q1 and not in F , marking them as such see below Q1 words are added when their omission seems to leave a gap in our text For example, in the first scene of the play, a speech of Cordelias concludes in F with the line Sure I shall never marry like my sisterswithout specifying the respect in which her marriage will differ from theirs Q1 alone provides the required specification with an additional half line, To love my father all, and we include Q1s half line in our text For similar additions, see 1.1.49, 75, 175, 246, 335 1.2.14041 1.3.29 1.4.195, 26768, 321 2.2.29 3.2.85 3.4.51, 52, 122, 143 4.1.48 4.5.43 4.6.299 4.7.28, 67 5.1.20 5.3.54 In a number of these cases the Q1 word or words are added to fill out short and metrically deficient lines in F We also add an oath from Q1 Fut, 1.2.138 that may have been removed from the F text through censorship However, when F lacks Q1 words that appear to add nothing of significance, we do not add these words to our text For example, Q1 adds the word attire to the end of Lears statement to Edgar, I do not like the fashion of your garments You will say they are Persian 3.6.8385 Here the Q1 word attire seems a mere repetition of the earlier garments Compare, among many instances, Q1 additions not included in our textwords that are sometimes needless, sometimes superfluouslisted in the textual notes at 1.1.60 2.4.266 3.6.83 3.7.66, 68 4.6.298 Sometimes Q1 readings are substituted for F words when a word in F is unintelligible i.e., not a word or is incorrect according to the standards of that time for acceptable grammar, rhetoric, idiom, or usage, and Q1 provides an intelligible and acceptable word Examples of such substitutions are Q1s fathers modernized to fathers for Fs Farhers 1.2.18 , Q1s your for Fs yout 2.1.122 , Q1s possesses for Fs professes 1.1.82 , or Q1s panting for Fs painting when Oswald is referred to as half breathless, panting 2.4.36 Compare substitutions from Q1 at 1.1.5, 72, 176, 259 1.4.1, 51, 164, 182, 203 2.1.2, 61, 80, 92, 1012, 144 2.2.0SD, 23, 82, 83, 131, 141, 166, 187 2.3.4, 18, 19 2.4.8, 12, 39, 65, 82, 144, 146, 212 3.2.3 3.4.12, 51, 56, 57, 97, 123 3.5.26 3.6.73 4.1.65 4.2.91 4.4.3, 12SP, 20 4.6.22, 77, 102, 180, 300 4.7.0SP, 15SP 5.1.52, 55 5.3.82SP, 99, 101, 118, 160, 163, 177, 308 We recognize that our understanding of what was acceptable in Shakespeares time is to some extent inevitably based upon reading others editions of King Lear, but it is also based on reading other writing from the period and on historical dictionaries and studies of Shakespeares grammar Finally, we print a word from Q1 rather than from F when a word in F seems at odds with the story that the play tells and Q1 supplies a word that coheres with the story For example, when Lear enters at the beginning of 2.4 he wonders, in F, why Cornwall and Regan did not send back my Messengers But, as far as we know, Lear has sent only a single messenger Kent to Cornwall and Regan Therefore, like most other editors, we print Q1s messenger for Fs Messengers Compare 1.1.214 and 5.3.193 Because we rarely substitute Q1 words for Fs, our edition is closer to F than are most other editions of the play available today In order to enable its readers to tell the difference between the F and Q1 versions, the present edition uses a variety of signals 1 All the words in this edition that are printed only in the First Quarto but not in the Folio appear in pointed brackets 2 All full lines that are found only in the Folio and not in the First Quarto are printed in brackets 3 Sometimes neither the Folio nor the First Quarto seems to offer a satisfactory reading, and it is necessary to print a word different from what is offered by either Such words called emendations by editors are printed within half brackets In this edition, whenever we change the wording of the Folio or add anything to its stage directions, we mark the change We want our readers to be immediately aware when we have intervened Only when we correct an obvious typographical error in the First Quarto or Folio does the change not get marked in our text Whenever we change the Folio or Quartos wording or change their punctuation so that meaning is changed, we list the change in the textual notes at the back of the book Those who wish to find the Quartos alternatives to the Folios readings will be able to find these also in the textual notes For the convenience of the reader, we have modernized the punctuation and the spelling of both the Folio and the First Quarto Thus, for example, our text supplies the modern standard spelling fathers for the Quartos spelling fathers quoted above Sometimes we go so far as to modernize certain old forms of words for example, when a means he, we change it to he we change mo to and ye to you But it is not our practice in editing any of the plays to modernize forms of words that sound distinctly different from modern forms For example, when the early printed texts read sith or apricocks or porpentine, we have not modernized to since, apricots, porcupine When the forms an, and, or and if appear instead of the modern form if, we have reduced and to an but have not changed any of these forms to their modern equivalent, if We also modernize and, where necessary, correct passages in foreign languages, unless an error in the early printed text can be reasonably explained as a joke We correct or regularize a number of the proper names, as is the usual practice in editions of the play For example, the Folios spellings Gloster and Burgundie are changed to the familiar Gloucester and Burgundy and there are a number of other comparable adjustments in the names This edition differs from many earlier ones in its efforts to aid the reader in imagining the play as a performance rather than as a series of historical events Thus stage directions are written with reference to the stage For example, in 1.2 Edmund is represented in the dialogue and in the fiction of the play as putting a letter in his pocket On the stage this letter would, however, be represented by a piece of paper Thus the present edition reads He puts a paper in his pocket rather than a letter Whenever it is reasonably certain, in our view, that a speech is accompanied by a particular action, we provide a stage direction describing the action Occasional exceptions to this rule occur when the action is so obvious that to add a stage direction would insult the reader Stage directions for the entrance of characters in mid scene are, with rare exceptions, placed so that they immediately precede the characters participation in the scene, even though these entrances may appear somewhat earlier in the early printed texts Whenever we move a stage direction, we record this change in the textual notes Latin stage directions e.g.,Exeunt are translated into English e.g., They exit We expand the often severely abbreviated forms of names used as speech headings in early printed texts into the full names of the characters We also regularize the speakers names in speech headings, using only a single designation for each character, even though the early printed texts sometimes use a variety of designations Variations in the speech headings of the early printed texts are recorded in the textual notes In the present edition, as well, we mark with a dash any change of address within a speech, unless a stage direction intervenes When the ed ending of a word is to be pronounced, we mark it with an accent Like editors for the last two centuries, we print metrically linked lines in the following way LEAR Makst thou this shame thy pastime KENTNo, my lord However, when there are a number of short verse lines that can be linked in than one way, we do not, with rare exceptions, indent any of them The Explanatory Notes The notes that appear in the commentary linked to the text are designed to provide readers with the help that they may need to enjoy the play Whenever the meaning of a word in the text is not readily accessible in a good contemporary dictionary, we offer the meaning in a note Sometimes we provide a note even when the relevant meaning is to be found in the dictionary but when the word has acquired since Shakespeares time other potentially confusing meanings In our notes, we try to offer modern synonyms for Shakespeares words We also try to indicate to the reader the connection between the word in the play and the modern synonym For example, Shakespeare sometimes uses the word head to mean source, but, for modern readers, there may be no connection evident between these two words We provide the connection by explaining Shakespeares usage as follows head fountainhead, source On some occasions, a whole phrase or clause needs explanation Then we rephrase in our own words the difficult passage, and add at the end synonyms for individual words in the passage When scholars have been unable to determine the meaning of a word or phrase, we acknowledge the uncertainty Biblical quotations are from the Geneva Bible 1560 , with the spelling and punctuation modernized IWe have also consulted a computerized text of the First Folio provided by the Text Archive of the Oxford University Computing Centre, to which we are grateful Also of great value was Michael Warrens The Complete King Lear Berkeley University of California Press, 1989 IIWe choose F not because we believe that it stands in closer relation to Shakespeare than Q1 we do not think it possible to establish which of Q1 or F is closer to the historical figure Shakespeare but because F is a better text than Q1 in that it requires an editor to make fewer changes to its line division and wording than an editor must make to Q1 King Lear Editors Preface In recent years, ways of dealing with Shakespeares texts and with the interpretation of his plays have been undergoing significant change This edition, while retaining many of the features that have always made the Folger Shakespeare so attractive to the general reader, at the same time reflects these current ways of thinking about Shakespeare For example, modern readers, actors, and teachers have become interested in the differences between, on the one hand, the early forms in which Shakespeares plays were first published and, on the other hand, the forms in which editors through the centuries have presented them In response to this interest, we have based our edition on what we consider the best early printed version of a particular play explaining our rationale in a section called An Introduction to This Text and have marked our changes in the textunobtrusively, we hope, but in such a way that the curious reader can be aware that a change has been made and can consult the Textual Notes to discover what appeared in the early printed version Current ways of looking at the plays are reflected in our brief introductions, in many of the commentary notes, in the annotated lists of Further Reading, and especially in each plays Modern Perspective, an essay written by an outstanding scholar who brings to the reader his or her fresh assessment of the play in the light of todays interests and concerns As in the Folger Library General Readers Shakespeare, which the New Folger Library Shakespeare replaces, we include explanatory notes designed to help make Shakespeares language clearer to a modern reader, and we hyperlink notes to the lines that they explain We also follow the earlier edition in including illustrationsof objects, of clothing, of mythological figuresfrom books and manuscripts in the Folger Shakespeare Library collection We provide fresh accounts of the life of Shakespeare, of the publishing of his plays, and of the theaters in which his plays were performed, as well as an introduction to the text itself We also include a section called Reading Shakespeares Language, in which we try to help readers learn to break the code of Elizabethan poetic language For each section of each volume, we are indebted to a host of generous experts and fellow scholars The Reading Shakespeares Language sections, for example, could not have been written had not Arthur King, of Brigham Young University, and Randal Robinson, author of Unlocking Shakespeares Language, led the way in untangling Shakespearean language puzzles and shared their insights and methodologies generously with us Shakespeares Life profited by the careful reading given it by S Schoenbaum Shakespeares Theater was read and strengthened by Andrew Gurr, John Astington, and William Ingram and The Publication of Shakespeares Plays is indebted to the comments of Peter W M Blayney We, as editors, take sole responsibility for any errors in our editions We are grateful to the authors of the Modern Perspectives to Leeds Barroll and David Bevington for their generous encouragement to the Huntington and Newberry Libraries for fellowship support to Kings University College for the grants it has provided to Paul Werstine to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, which provided him with Research Time Stipends to R J Shroyer of Western University for essential computer support and to the Folger Institutes Center for Shakespeare Studies for its fortuitous sponsorship of a workshop on Shakespeares Texts for Students and Teachers funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and led by Richard Knowles of the University of Wisconsin , a workshop from which we learned an enormous amount about what is wanted by college and high school teachers of Shakespeare today In preparing this preface for the publication of King Lear in 1993, we wrote Our biggest debt is to the Folger Shakespeare Library to Werner Gundersheimer, Director of the Library, who has made possible our edition to Jean Miller, the Librarys Art Curator, who combed the Library holdings for illustrations, and to Julie Ainsworth, Head of the Photography Department, who carefully photographed them to Peggy OBrien, Director of Education, who gave us expert advice about the needs being expressed by Shakespeare teachers and students and to Martha Christian and other master teachers who used our texts in manuscript in their classrooms to the staff of the Academic Programs Division, especially Paul Menzer who drafted Further Reading material , Mary Tonkinson, Lena Cowen Orlin, Molly Haws, and Jessica Hymowitz and, finally, to the staff of the Library Reading Room, whose patience and support have been invaluable Special thanks are due Richard Knowles, who allowed us to see his commentary on Acts 1 and 2 for his forthcoming New Variorum edition of King Lear As we revise the play for publication in 2015, we add to the above our gratitude to Michael Wit, Director of the Folger Shakespeare Library, who brings to our work a gratifying enthusiasm and vision to Gail Kern Paster, Director of the Library from 2002 until July 2011, whose interest and support have been unfailing and whose scholarly expertise continues to be an invaluable resource to Jonathan Evans and Alysha Bullock, our production editors at Simon Schuster, whose expertise, attention to detail, and wisdom are essential to this project to the Folgers Photography Department to Deborah Curren Aquino, for continuing superb editorial assistance to Alice Falk for her expert copyediting to Michael Poston for unfailing computer support to Anna Levine and to Rebecca Niles whose help is crucial We are grateful to Leslie Thomson and Roslyn L Knutson for theater history expertise Among the editions we consulted, we found Ren Weiss Parallel Text Edition 2010 and R A Foakess Arden edition 1997 especially useful Finally, we once again express our gratitude to the late Jean Miller for the wonderful images she unearthed, to Stephen Llano for twenty five years of invaluable assistance as our production editor, and to the ever supportive staff of the Library Reading Room Barbara A Mowat and Paul Werstine 2015 King Lear Folger Shakespeare Library William Shakespeare, Dr Barbara A Mowat, Paul Werstine PhD Books King Wikipedia is a tragedy written by ShakespeareIt depicts the gradual descent into madness of title character, after he disposes his kingdom giving bequests to two three daughters egged on their continual flattery, bringing tragic consequences for allDerived from legend Leir Britain, mythological pre Roman Celtic king Teaching Modules Library BECOME MEMBER Become member and receive access special events MAKE DONATION We invite you personally participate in life making tax deductible donation institution Folger Digital Texts Texts your source reliable, expertly edited encoded texts Hamlet Events before start Hamlet set stage When Denmark, Prince s father, suddenly dies, mother, Gertrude, marries uncle Claudius, who becomes new The an independent research library Capitol Hill Washington, DC United StatesIt has world largest collection printed works primary repository rare materials early modern period was established Henry Clay association with wife, Emily Jordan Knig Knig englisch Tragedy gilt als eine der herausragenden Tragdien aus Feder ShakespearesDie erste Fassung ist mit Sicherheit nicht vor , vermutlich jedoch erst entstanden Im Stationers Register Auffhrung am Dezember englischen Hof verzeichnet Shakespeare Online In depth accurate information, including free play analysis, biography, essays, answers common questions, Shakespearean glossary PSF Richard II pashakespeare Reviews Philadelphia Inquirer Compelling Christian Coulson, creates memorable, ill fated kinghe wins sympathy bravery freedom bombast accepting fate dramatizes story aged ancient whose plan divide among ends tragically tests each asking how much she loves him, older daughters, Goneril Regan, flatter him youngest, Cordelia, does not, disowns banishes her She France Folgerpedia owns over stand alone translations various languages not collected Cataloging these ongoing as many have full level catalog records, but some still only partial records For all force its language, almost equally powerful when translated, suggesting that it story, large part, draws us tells about families struggling between greed cruelty, one hand, support consolation, other FREE shipping qualifying offers challenges magnitude, intensity, sheer duration pain Theatre, Folgerpedia uses, see disambiguation Theatre performed production January February Elizabethan Andr De Shields directed Alfred Preisser, AbeBooks great selection similar New, Used Collectible available now at prices SHAKESPEARE LIBRARY Podcast Unlimited James Shapiro Year Archived QA Shapiro, Twitter From Publisher Simon Schuster A well played, compact solid so modestly mounted, could fit pockets recent productions darkest Eight actors roles sprawling tale, compared alongside John Lithgow Public Theater New York this summer surrounded Russell Beale late Britain National shoplger Minute renders six scenes enduring Starting banishment plot advances irresistibly, featuring brother Edmund villainous plotting Fool witty, weighty wordplay season features plays showcasing theater ability shake With rarely seen classics, East Coast premiere runaway UK hit, Restoration presentation can experience Folger, Books Editions Paperback Lear authoritative edition Library, trusted widely used series students general readers, includes Freshly text based best version Newly revised explanatory notes Archives Education By Dan Bruno Lear, embodiment horrors human existence, black hole center universe, drawing any sense EDUCATION DEPARTMENT CURRICULUM GUIDE TO KING LEAR About houses Globe Scene launching tour America stint created our timesI noble Lears, pathological fragile arrogant Lears combined characteristicsWilliam April English poet, playwright actor, regarded both greatest writer language eminent dramatist He often called England national poet Bard Avon His extant works, collaborations, consist approximately plays, sonnets, long narrative poems, Biography Biography baptized playwright, actor also known Facts, Life, Plays Britannica dramatist, considered be time HISTORY Considered speaking history had theatrical Quotes BrainyQuote Enjoy BrainyQuote Quotations Dramatist, Born Share friends BBC iWonder legacy are universal themes insight condition Yet mystery Poet Academy American Poets foremost time, wrote than thirty hundred form quatrains couplet recognized The Complete Works Shakespeare Welcome Web first This site offered poetry Internet community since Times Sep News Commentary archival information Times IMDb Writer M Movie birthdate assumed baptism father son farmer became successful tradesman mother Mary Arden gentry studied Latin King Lear (Folger Shakespeare Library)


    • King Lear (Folger Shakespeare Library)
    • 4.5
    • 829
    • Hardcover
    • 401 pages
    • B00IWTWDKQ
    • William Shakespeare
    • English
    • 25 October 2017

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