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ధ Free Read Format Kindle [ Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body ] ಅ Kindle Author Neil Shubin ಘ

ధ Free Read Format Kindle [ Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body ] ಅ Kindle Author Neil Shubin ಘ ధ Free Read Format Kindle [ Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body ] ಅ Kindle Author Neil Shubin ಘ FINDING YOUR INNER FISHTypical summers of my adult life are spent in snow and sleet, cracking rocks on cliffs well north of the Arctic Circle Most of the time I freeze, get blisters, and find absolutely nothing But if I have any luck, I find ancient fish bones That may not sound like buried treasure to most people, but to me it is valuable than gold.Ancient fish bones can be a path to knowledge about who we are and how we got that way We learn about our own bodies in seemingly bizarre places, ranging from the fossils of worms and fish recovered from rocks from around the world to the DNA in virtually every animal alive on earth today But that does not explain my confidence about why skeletal remains from the pastand the remains of fish, no lessoffer clues about the fundamental structure of our bodies.How can we visualize events that happened millions and, in many cases, billions of years ago Unfortunately, there were no eyewitnesses none of us was around In fact, nothing that talks or has a mouth or even a head was around for most of this time Even worse, the animals that existed back then have been dead and buried for so long their bodies are only rarely preserved If you consider that over 99 percent of all species that ever lived are now extinct, that only a very small fraction are preserved as fossils, and that an even smaller fraction still are ever found, then any attempt to see our past seems doomed from the start.DIGGING FOSSILSSEEING OURSELVESI first saw one of our inner fish on a snowy July afternoon while studying 375 million year old rocks on Ellesmere Island, at a latitude about 80 degrees north My colleagues and I had traveled up to this desolate part of the world to try to discover one of the key stages in the shift from fish to land living animals Sticking out of the rocks was the snout of a fish And not just any fish a fish with a flat head Once we saw the flat head we knew we were onto something If of this skeleton were found inside the cliff, it would reveal the early stages in the history of our skull, our neck, even our limbs.What did a flat head tell me about the shift from sea to land More relevant to my personal safety and comfort, why was I in the Arctic and not in Hawaii The answers to these questions lie in the story of how we find fossils and how we use them to decipher our own past.Fossils are one of the major lines of evidence that we use to understand ourselves Genes and embryos are others, which I will discuss later Most people do not know that finding fossils is something we can often do with surprising precision and predictability We work at home to maximize our chances of success in the field Then we let luck take over.The paradoxical relationship between planning and chance is best described by Dwight D Eisenhowers famous remark about warfare In preparing for battle, I have found that planning is essential, but plans are useless This captures field paleontology in a nutshell We make all kinds of plans to get us to promising fossil sites Once were there, the entire field plan may be thrown out the window Facts on the ground can change our best laid plans.Yet we can design expeditions to answer specific scientific questions Using a few simple ideas, which Ill talk about below, we can predict where important fossils might be found Of course, we are not successful 100 percent of the time, but we strike it rich often enough to make things interesting I have made a career out of doing just that finding early mammals to answer questions of mammal origins, the earliest frogs to answer questions of frog origins, and some of the earliest limbed animals to understand the origins of land living animals.In many ways, field paleontologists have a significantly easier time finding new sites today than we ever did before We know about the geology of local areas, thanks to the geological exploration undertaken by local governments and oil and gas companies The Internet gives us rapid access to maps, survey information, and aerial photos I can even scan your backyard for promising fossil sites right from my laptop To top it off, imaging and radiographic devices can see through some kinds of rock and allow us to visualize the bones inside.Despite these advances, the hunt for the important fossils is much what it was a hundred years ago Paleontologists still need to look at rockliterally to crawl over itand the fossils within must often be removed by hand So many decisions need to be made when prospecting for and removing fossil bone that these processes are difficult to automate Besides, looking at a monitor screen to find fossils would never be nearly as much fun as actually digging for them.What makes this tricky is that fossil sites are rare To maximize our odds of success, we look for the convergence of three things We look for places that have rocks of the right age, rocks of the right type to preserve fossils, and rocks that are exposed at the surface There is another factor serendipity That I will show by example.Our example will show us one of the great transitions in the history of life the invasion of land by fish For billions of years, all life lived only in water Then, as of about 365 million years ago, creatures also inhabited land Life in these two environments is radically different Breathing in water requires very different organs than breathing in air The same is true for excretion, feeding, and moving about A whole new kind of body had to arise At first glance, the divide between the two environments appears almost unbridgeable But everything changes when we look at the evidence what looks impossible actually happened.In seeking rocks of the right age, we have a remarkable fact on our side The fossils in the rocks of the world are not arranged at random Where they sit, and what lies inside them, is most definitely ordered, and we can use this order to design our expeditions Billions of years of change have left layer upon layer of different kinds of rock in the earth The working assumption, which is easy to test, is that rocks on the top are younger than rocks on the bottom this is usually true in areas that have a straightforward, layer cake arrangement think the Grand Canyon But movements of the earths crust can cause faults that shift the position of the layers, putting older rocks on top of younger ones Fortunately, once the positions of these faults are recognized, we can often piece the original sequence of layers back together.The fossils inside these rock layers also follow a progression, with lower layers containing species entirely different from those in the layers above If we could quarry a single column of rock that contained the entire history of life, we would find an extraordinary range of fossils The lowest layers would contain little visible evidence of life Layers above them would contain impressions of a diverse set of jellyfish like things Layers still higher would have creatures with skeletons, appendages, and various organs, such as eyes Above those would be layers with the first animals to have backbones And so on The layers with the first people would be found higher still Of course, a single column containing the entirety of earth history does not exist Rather, the rocks in each location on earth represent only a small sliver of time To get the whole picture, we need to put the pieces together by comparing the rocks themselves and the fossils inside them, much as if working a giant jigsaw puzzle.That a column of rocks has a progression of fossil species probably comes as no surprise Less obvious is that we can make detailed predictions about what the species in each layer might actually look like, by comparing them with species of animals that are alive today this information helps us to predict the kinds of fossils we will find in ancient rock layers In fact, the fossil sequences in the worlds rocks can be predicted by comparing ourselves with the animals at our local zoo or aquarium.How can a walk through the zoo help us predict where we should look in the rocks to find important fossils A zoo offers a great variety of creatures that are all distinct in many ways But lets not focus on what makes them distinct to pull off our prediction, we need to focus on what different creatures share We can then use the features common to all species to identify groups of creatures with similar traits All the living things can be organized and arranged like a set of Russian nesting dolls, with smaller groups of animals comprised in bigger groups of animals When we do this, we discover something very fundamental about nature.Every species in the zoo and the aquarium has a head and two eyes Call these species Everythings A subset of the creatures with a head and two eyes has limbs Call the limbed species Everythings with limbs A subset of these headed and limbed creatures has a huge brain, walks on two feet, and speaks That subset is us, humans We could, of course, use this way of categorizing things to make many subsets, but even this threefold division has predictive power.The fossils inside the rocks of the world generally follow this order, and we can put it to use in designing new expeditions To use the example above, the first member of the group Everythings, a creature with a head and two eyes, is found in the fossil record well before the first Everything with limbs More precisely, the first fish a card carrying member of the Everythings appears before the first amphibian an Everything with limbs Obviously, we refine this by looking at kinds of animals and many characteristics that groups of them share, as well as by assessing the actual age of the rocks themselves.In our labs, we do exactly this type of analysis with thousands upon thousands of characteristics and species We look at every bit of anatomy we can, and often at large chunks of DNA There are so much data that we often need powerful computers to show us the groups within groups This approach is the foundation of biology, because it enables us to make hypotheses about how creatures are related to one another.Besides helping us refine the groupings of life, hundreds of years of fossil collection have produced a vast library, or catalogue, of the ages of the earth and the life on it We can now identify general time periods when major changes occurred Interested in the origin of mammals Go to rocks from the period called the Early Mesozoic geochemistry tells us that these rocks are likely about 210 million years old Interested in the origin of primates Go higher in the rock column, to the Cretaceous period, where rocks are about 80 million years old.The order of fossils in the worlds rocks is powerful evidence of our connections to the rest of life If, digging in 600 million year old rocks, we found the earliest jellyfish lying next to the skeleton of a woodchuck, then we would have to rewrite our texts That woodchuck would have appeared earlier in the fossil record than the first mammal, reptile, or even fishbefore even the first worm Moreover, our ancient woodchuck would tell us that much of what we think we know about the history of the earth and life on it is wrong Despite than 150 years of people looking for fossilson every continent of earth and in virtually every rock layer that is accessiblethis observation has never been made.Lets now return to our problem of how to find relatives of the first fish to walk on land In our grouping scheme, these creatures are somewhere between the Everythings and the Everythings with limbs Map this to what we know of the rocks, and there is strong geological evidence that the period from 380 million to 365 million years ago is the critical time The younger rocks in that range, those about 360 million years old, include diverse kinds of fossilized animals that we would all recognize as amphibians or reptiles My colleague Jenny Clack at Cambridge University and others have uncovered amphibians from rocks in Greenland that are about 365 million years old With their necks, their ears, and their four legs, they do not look like fish But in rocks that are about 385 million years old, we find whole fish that look like, well, fish They have fins, conical heads, and scales and they have no necks Given this, it is probably no great surprise that we should focus on rocks about 375 million years old to find evidence of the transition between fish and land living animals.We have settled on a time period to research, and so have identified the layers of the geological column we wish to investigate Now the challenge is to find rocks that were formed under conditions capable of preserving fossils Rocks form in different kinds of environments and these initial settings leave distinct signatures on the rock layers Volcanic rocks are mostly out No fish that we know of can live in lava And even if such a fish existed, its fossilized bones would not survive the superheated conditions in which basalts, rhyolites, granites, and other igneous rocks are formed We can also ignore metamorphic rocks, such as schist and marble, for they have undergone either superheating or extreme pressure since their initial formation Whatever fossils might have been preserved in them have long since disappeared Ideal to preserve fossils are sedimentary rocks limestones, sandstones, siltstones, and shales Compared with volcanic and metamorphic rocks, these are formed by gentle processes, including the action of rivers, lakes, and seas Not only are animals likely to live in such environments, but the sedimentary processes make these rocks likely places to preserve fossils For example, in an ocean or lake, particles constantly settle out of the water and are deposited on the bottom Over time, as these particles accumulate, they are compressed by new, overriding layers The gradual compression, coupled with chemical processes happening inside the rocks over long periods of time, means that any skeletons contained in the rocks stand a decent chance of fossilizing Similar processes happen in and along streams The general rule is that the gentler the flow of the stream or river, the better preserved the fossils From the Hardcover edition.A compelling scientific adventure story that will change forever how you understand what it means to be human.Oliver SacksMagisterial If you want to understand the evolutionary history of man and other animals, and read no other account this year, read this splendid monograph. Financial TimesWonderful A remarkably readable trip through the deep history of our own bodies. The Boston Globe Shubin s simple, passionate writing may turn than a few high school students into aspiring biologists. NatureLively Join him and learn to love your body for what it really is a jury rigged fish. DiscoverRemarkably enthusiastic Shubin presents his arguments creatively and concisely, tackling sometimes profound questions about origins and evolution directly, even humorously. San Diego Union TribuneShubin s hand, transformed from what was once a fishy fin, provides a powerful example of what evolution is capable of A deft synthesis. New ScientistA delightful introduction to our skeletal structure, viscera and other vital parts Shubin is a warm and disarming guide. Los Angeles TimesWith infectious enthusiasm, unfailing clarity, and laugh out loud humor, Neil Shubin has created a book on paleontology, genetics, genomics, and anatomy that is almost impossible to put down In telling the story of why we are who we are, Shubin does than show us our inner fish he awakens and excites the inner scientist in us all.Pauline Chen, author of Final ExamThe antievolution crowd is always asking where the missing links in the descent of man are Well, paleontologist Shubin actually discovered one A crackerjack comparative anatomist, he uses his find to launch a voyage of discovery about the evolutionary evidence we can readily see at hand Shubin relays all this exciting evidence and reasoning so clearly that no general interest library should be without this book. Booklist starred review A skillful writer, paleontologist Shubin conveys infectious enthusiasm Even readers with only a laypersons knowledge of evolution will learn marvelous things about the unity of all organisms since the beginning of life. Kirkus Reviews starred review Fish paleontologist Shubin illuminates the subject of evolution with humor and clarity in this compelling look at how the human body evolved into its present state Shubin moves smoothly through the anatomical spectrum He excels at explaining the science, making each discovery an adventure. Publishers WeeklyI was hooked from the first chapter of Your Inner Fish Creationists will want this book banned because it presents irrefutable evidence for a transitional creature that set the stage for the journey from sea to land This engaging book combines the excitement of discovery with the rigors of great scholarship to provide a convincing case of evolution from fish to man.Don Johanson, director, Institute of Human Origins discoverer of LucyIn this extraordinary book, Neil Shubin takes us on an epic expedition to arctic wastelands, where his team discovered amazing new fossil evidence of creatures that bridge the gap between fish and land living animals With clarity and wit, Shubin shows us how exciting it is to be in the new age of discovery in evolutionary biology.Mike Novacek, author of Terra Our 100 Million Year Ecosystem and the Threats That Now Put It at Risk Cleverly weaving together adventures in paleontology with very accessible science, Neil Shubin reveals the many surprisingly deep connections between our anatomy and that of fish, reptiles, and other creatures You will never look at your body in the same way again examine, embrace, and exalt Your Inner Fish Sean Carroll, author of The Making of Fittest and Endless Forms Most Beautiful If you thought paleontology was all about Jurassic Park, take a look at this eye opening book Shubin takes us back 375 million years, to a time when a strange fish like creature swam or crawled in shallow streams Come along on this thrilling paleontological journey and learn how living things including you got to be what they are Richard Ellis, author of Encyclopedia of the Sea The human story didn t start with the first bipeds it began literally billions of years ago In this easy reading volume, Shubin shows us how to discover that long and fascinating history in the structure of our own bodies while weaving in a charming account of his own scientific journey This is the ideal book for anyone who wants to explore beyond the usual anthropocentric account of human origins Ian Tattersall, curator, American Museum of Natural History Your Inner Fish A Journey into the Billion Year Enter your mobile number or email address below and we ll send you a link to download free Kindle App Then can start reading books on smartphone, tablet, computer About Book, Awards Reviews Praise for Your is my favorite sort of book an intelligent, exhilarating, compelling scientific adventure story, one which will change forever Episode HHMI BioInteractive AVAILABLE FOR ORDER DVD The PBS series delves deep in past reveal startling truth Hidden within human body story life Earth Movies TV Product Description reveals This takes viewers from Ethiopia Arctic Circle hunt many ways that our animal ancestors shaped anatomical destiny Explore Animals PBS Explore completely new way interactive surprising origins amazing annoying features Meet Ancestors Time Neil Shubin, University Chicago scientist who led team dug up Tiktaalik, went write best selling about it, titled That three part Twisting Fish Twisting Yoga Studio run by highly experienced Teachers have been teaching yoga minimum years experience Can Food Allergy Cause Rashes Buttocks food allergy reaction immune system certain allergies cause mild symptoms, but also be threatening Books Will Enrich Literati Answer Cristina Hartmann Quora Correction appended, March For anyone wants attain vaunted title being well read, it s breadth than depth Fish Lane Brisbane Home Leave those dreary trips motorway behind walk among vivid, sprawling imagery lanes draped brilliant neon displays No, re not talking streets London Prague these scenes are drawn South very own Of Laurel, IncKILA FISH Inc manages Elizabeth House Since , volunteers at focused their energy passionately advocating homeless low income people Embrace inner prince princess statue Queen Victoria greets guests Kensington Palace, monarch birthplace childhood home Today, members royal family live palace, open tours Trollart Cruisin Fossil Coastline Our has hit shelves reviews Johnson Troll done again, congratulations knockout blend science humor, featuring superb artwork, people, stories West Coast US its fascinating prehistory Tank IMDb Mia Williams phenomenal coming out Katie Jarvis foul mouthed street bred year old girl with aspiration become dancer However living decrepit neighbourhood her alcoholic mother badmouthing sister does allow dream too extravagantly Mounts now offering full line fiberglass fish blank replicas available taxidermist, hobbyist, do yourselferNeil Shubin From finest most popular writers, author Fish, comes answer mystery as big world itself How astronomical events took place millions ago created unique qualities species In his last book, Shubin delved connections between anatomy hands journey History Human Body Why look What hand common wing fly The Universe Within Discovering Common Kirkus Best formed solar billions embedded inside each us paleontologist professor co discovered hands, tells bodies ve never heard beforeThe basis By examining fossils DNA, he shows actually resemble fins, heads organized like long extinct jawless fish, major parts genomes function Series Anatomist sees evidence ancient DNA Join him this Emmy award winning series, originally aired PBS, journeys meet ancestors, while revealing impact animals had News Documentary Outstanding Graphic Design Art Direction Glossary acquired trait phenotypic characteristic, during growth development, genetically based therefore cannot passed next generation example, large Tiktaalik Wikipedia Tiktaalik t k l monospecific genus sarcopterygian lobe finned late Devonian period, MYA million having akin tetrapods four legged Unearthed Canada, technically complete scales gills flattened head crocodile unusual David Goodis Ed Holub Retracing Footsteps David Goodis, America Great Lost Noir Writer After gets so bad want stop whole business Colbert Report Comedy Central Official Site As fearless purveyor truthiness, Stephen shines light ego driven punditry, moral hypocrisy government incompetence, raising bar political satire Marine Biological Laboratory Discovery Marine MBL dedicated discovery exploring fundamental biology, understanding biodiversity environment, informing condition through research education Founded Woods Hole, Massachusetts private, nonprofit institution affiliate Copyright Michio Kaku All rights reserved Daniel Fairbanks, Relics ofEden Timothy Ferris, emeritus California, Berkeley, Coming ofAge inthe Milky Way Maria Finitzo, filmmaker, Peabody Award winner, Mapping Stem Cell Research Robert Finkelstein, AI expert LitCharts creators SparkNotes, something betterKILA better Understand faster Free PhD Chicago I seek understand mechanisms evolutionary origin faunas philosophy underlies all empirical work derived conviction progress study biology results linking across diverse temporal Host, Paleontologist biologist Bensley Distinguished Service Professor Books Into January NeilShubin Twitter Off Antarctica Deception Glacier Skelton Nv discover sledge camp different rock layers poking ice until mid Nova ScienceNow known Der Fisch uns Transitions Origin Tetrapods Author Goodreads avg rating, ratings, reviews, published r neil shubin Eine Reise durch die Milliarden Jahre alte Geschichte unseres Krpers German Edition Sep Custom Dr Schubin truly succeeded tracing fun informative account evolution looking fossil extant homologues Drawing especially paleontology, fields such molecular genetics, reader introductory Tracing fins limbs Associate Dean Organismal Evolutionary Biology RR, Chicago, talks significance roseae fresh quirky examination Penguin Random Speakers Bureau Anatomy widely celebrated discovering roseae, fishapod dubbed missing land animalsShubin Science Life veteran Arctic, five colleagues spend Christmas holiday celebrate New quiet other end world, U Evolution Limbs Fins Apr interested how evolved To question, searched intermediate Detailed explanations, analysis, citation info every important quote LitCharts Figure Skating Biographies isuresults Figure Men AND Andorra Marc CASAL Elvis CAUBET ARG Argentina Mauro CALCAGNO Denis MARGALIK Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body

 

    • Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body
    • 4.4
    • 612
    • Format Kindle
    • 256 pages
    • 0307277453
    • Neil Shubin
    • Anglais
    • 27 December 2016

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