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殈 Importance of textThe Americas: A Hemispheric History ꗀ By Felipe Fern ndez Armesto 곣

殈 Importance of textThe Americas: A Hemispheric History ꗀ By Felipe Fern ndez Armesto 곣 殈 Importance of textThe Americas: A Hemispheric History ꗀ By Felipe Fern ndez Armesto 곣 1Americas America Americans bicker over the name of Americans To the chorus in West Side Story, America is a foreign land, where some of them like to be, a sentiment apparently inaccessible to them in Puerto Rico Canadians write to newspapers in the United States complaining that the citizens of one country have usurped the appellation of Americans The Spanish intellectual Amrico Castro was so called because he was born on a boat on the way to Argentina In much of South America the people of the United States are called norteamericanos, whereas the northernmost Americans are actually Inuit and the United States reaches only the forty eighth parallel A character in Barcelona, Whit Stillmans film about U.S expatriates trying to cope with anti Americanism, resents the Spanish term estadounidense because it makes him feel despised as dense Many of the names by which Americans call one anotherAnglos, Afros, indios, Latinos, Caucasianstug at other continents The privileged names now enjoyed by some minoritiesNative Americans, indgenas, First Nationsimply an imperfect sense of belonging in everyone else No usage suits everybody.Yet America was once the New Worldpure and simple It was possible to imagine it as a single category, a single polity, the home of a huge, embracing identity Pan Americanism no longer exists, except as piety or rhetoric Like Europe, America is a Humpty Dumpty continent It has to be painfully reconstructed after the ravages of nationalism, across the fissures and fractures between which rival identities have formed This book is an attempt at mental reconstruction of the hemisphere an effort to see it whole and to trace a common history that embraces all the Americas.American SingularityHow many Americas are there Once, at least in the eyes of beholders who looked at the hemisphere from outside, there was only one America possessed unity and integ rity of a sort, long before it was well delineated The term entered our languages in the singular Amerigo Vespucci or, at least, a writer using his byline reported the first lands known as America from the coasts of what are now Venezuela, Guiana, and Brazil Martin Waldseemller, the cosmographer who coined the name in Amerigos honor on a map and an accompanying treatise in 1507, rapidly regretted it he realized that the honor of the discoveries he had attributed to Vespucci really belonged to Columbus In his next map he suppressed the name, but it was too late America extended, in contemporary imaginations, over the whole of an ill defined hemisphere, which seemed to grow as successive expeditions explored further, unsuspected parts of it The unity of the New World was apparent to most early explorers who reconnoitered it and early European cartographers who drew it Some of them, at first, split it into two with a very narrow strait others showed the New World as what we think of today as South America, while representing North America as a promontory of Asia But the convention of showing the whole hemisphere as a single large landmass was well established in the second decade of the sixteenth century.This is an odder, intriguing fact than it may at first seem, since it was easier, in the years when the idea of America was first introduced to European minds, to deny the hemisphere altogetherdismissing the claim that it existed as fraud or delusionor to classify it as part of Asia European geographers in antiquity and the Middle Ages speculated about the existence of an unexplored landmass in the unfrequented recesses of the western ocean But belief in it was a minority indulgence, derided by skeptics The idea that something as big and discrete as a new world lurked unseen, waiting to be discovered, seemed implausible to the Old World Even writers of the medieval equivalent of science fictionromances of seaborne chivalrygenerally preferred to speckle the Atlantic with islands as settings for their heroes adventures So did the makers of speculative sea charts though a series survives of fifteenth century maps that also depict a western continent, named after the daughters of Hesperus from the legend of Hercules, who raided their garden for golden apples.Most cosmographers reviewing projects for ocean crossings in the fifteenth century dismissed the possibility that exploration would uncover a new continent They thought they knew all the world there was Even Columbus, who found a route to America, was disinclined to believe that such a place existed Though his geographical notions were mercurial, and he was inclined to change his mind according to the fancies and prejudices of his audience, he generally favored the view that the world was too small to accommodate an unknown hemisphere the new world he claimed to have discovered was, in his own estimation, really just a new part of the old onethe easternmost extremities of Eurasia, the Indies that the ancients had labored to reach.Nevertheless, in the century or so preceding Columbuss voyages, the idea that something like America might really exist did gain some ground Partly this was because of the movement we loosely call the Renaissancethe progressive rediscovery in western Europe of texts from classical antiquity Mainstream geographical tradition in antiquity knew roughly how big the world was In the third century b.c the librarian Eratosthenes had measured it with tolerable accuracy He proposed a value of about twenty five thousand miles at the equator, in modern terms, using a mixture of trigonometry, which was infallible, and measurement, which was open to quibble But there was clearly room for another worldthe Antipodes, as it was called by geographers who believed in it.A number of fifteenth century humanistspursuers, that is, of the anthropocentric curriculum recommended by classical scholarshipdrew attention to ancient speculations about the Antipodes In 1423 one of the most suggestive ancient geographical texts arrived in Latin Christendom Strabos defense, written in Greek in the first century b.c of a picture of the world traditional since the time of Homer Strabo placed the supposed unknown continent roughly where Columbus or one of the other Atlantic navigators of the time might have hoped to find it It may be, he wrote, that in this same temperate zone there are actually two inhabited worlds, or even , and in particular in the proximity of the parallel through Athens that is drawn across the Atlantic In the context of Strabos thought as a whole it seems that this observation was intended ironically but irony is notoriously difficult to detect in texts from an unfamiliar time or culture, and some of Columbuss contemporaries took the passage literally As soon as Columbus returned from his first Atlantic crossing, humanist geographers began to speculate that he had reached the Antipodes The people learned about it, the the identification solidified The parts of the American mainland and islandsdespite their vastness and their multitudinous diversityfused into one.Yet, from another point of view, it was a mistake to think of America as one People who lived there before Columbus arrived had no such notionthey knew it too well The unity of the hemisphere was imposed by imaginations that could barely suspect how enormous it was, or by minds anxious to shrink it to manageable proportions, so that it could be easily skirted by merchants bound for Oriental spiceries Old World minds seemed to resist the truth about American size and complexity It took a long time for the reality of America to sink in In the mid 1520s, Verrazano thought he could see the Pacific from the Atlantic off the Carolina coast Most sixteenth century maps squeezed North America into narrow proportions English colonists in Virginia in the early seventeenth century thought they would be able to reach the South Sea by overland march The early navigators of the Mississippi expected the great river to flow into a sea that washed China.As knowledge of the scale and variety of the Americas gradually grew and began to shadow reality, minds did not adjust by abandoning unified conceptions America remained one big place Creole patriots in the American regions of the Spanish monarchy called themselves Americans long before the term became current in what is now the United States In symbolic seventeenth and eighteenth century depictions of the continents, there is always only one America The eighteenth century dispute of the New Worlda long running debate among intellectuals about how to classify America and its productswas conducted largely in terms of hemisphere wide generalizations European commentators criticized America as a whole when Georges Louis Buffon 17071788 and Cornelius De Pauw 17341799 derided America as a degenerate and degenerating place, which produced only stunted species, inferior peopleeffete men, insensitive womenand regressive civilizations, they attributed these unsettling qualities to the entire hemisphere For De Pauw in his Recherches philoso phiques sur les Amricains, Patagonian giants were as implau sible as philosophical Hurons, or albinos in Darin, or s along the they were all delusions of the kind that made the hemisphere seem wonderful, when really, he claimed, it was woeful He generalized about the climate it was cold and wet, damp and putrid everywhere This was only slightly unhelpful than the equal and opposite generalizations advocated by apologists for America, such as Antoine Joseph Pernty 17161801 , who insisted that the climate was everywhere benign From the Hardcover edition.An imaginative, intelligent and sprightly volume that, in the space of some two hundred pages, races through the history of the Western hemispherefrom prehistoric times to the present.The Washington Post Book WorldThis wonderfully sharp and provocative book should become essential reading for anybody interested in the history of America.The Times Literary Supplement London Fernndez Armesto can personalize broad historical trends without sinking into triviality History written at its best Booklist Olympus Corporation of the Americas Headline News Olympus Announces Live Webinar for Advanced GI Fellows Preparing Practice Promotes US Based Company Leaders to Global Roles MSC Software Simulating Reality, Delivering MSC is a global leader in helping product manufacturers advance their engineering methods with simulation software and services Home World Championships Circuit The Home Formula , MotoGP, FIA Rallycross, Audi Driving Experience, Americas, Austin Amphitheater, COTA Karting, so much TotoUSA Home ZL Single Handle Faucet Focusing on flow water, we introduce an edgy, beautiful faucet wide water Conspicuous its absence, space ultimate luxury Indigenous peoples Americas Wikipedia indigenous are pre Columbian North, Central, South America descendants Although some were traditionally hunter gatherers many, especially basin, still many groups practiced aquaculture agricultureThe impact agricultural endowment world testament PAHO WHO Pan American Health Organization Organization PAHO works countries improve health quality life populations Founded it s oldest international public agency It serves as Regional Office specialized Inter system Mobile Congress Event Highlights From Conference Programs Exhibition, take closer look at what happened this year MWCA Nearly attendees walked through doors Los Angeles Convention Center LACC attend annual conference programs AEP Welcome new day Electric Power We re reintroducing our website you mind Our format informed by users hope ll find bright, forward looking easy navigate BNamericas Latin Business News, Information BNamericas business intelligence tool data, news, analysis events identify job opportunities, projects, companies contacts Native Languages Native Preserving promoting Indian languages small non profit organization dedicated survival languages, particularly Welcome States States This Web Server operated Foreign Trade System SICE While IP address have reached supports multiple web sites related mission actual URL used invalid America Story from Library Explore history using primary sources Library Kids can discover Story, meet amazing Americans, explore states Includes songs, movies, quizzes short stories about New Revelations Before Columbus Charles C Mann FREE shipping qualifying offers In groundbreaking work science, history, archaeology, radically alters understanding before arrival Contrary Americans learn school Bloomberg Bloomberg delivers markets analysis, video world, featuring Businessweek Human Rights Watch Defending Human Worldwide Worldwide There growing trend confront abuses headline grabbing autocrats, said today launching Report The definition Free Define synonyms, pronunciation, translation, English dictionary United also landmasses islands North America, Central economist Out old What make Brazil firebrand president, Jair Bolsonaro Voters long economic revival investors wary Jan Washington Post Post provides latest information breaking news Canada coverage Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Chile Americas up most land Earth western hemisphere northernmost point Kaffeklubben Island, which northerly southernmost Southern Thule, although they sometimes considered part Antarctica Into A novel based true story Kindle Into end result years research writing first came across centuries diary entries young seaman John Jewitt early immediately became enad intriguing slice Formula Experience STRAP IN minute program wastes no time getting track scout out turns, curves, elevation changes Grand Prix Program Program victory extreme right candidate, Bolsonaro, presidential elections fall Workers Party having profound rest Countries Nations Caribbean Megacities Rainforest rainforest near Manaus capital state represents over half planet remaining tropical rainforests % A HD Television Series David Yetman Yetman initiative Southwest Center, University Arizona seeks define, illuminate, present, research, teaching, publishing, character Greater heartland Arizona, Sonora, Chihuahua, peripheries Mexico Times Breaking reporting Find Mexico immigration, travel, business, politics Independent message Iran TV presenter arrested FBI, say reports Europe Russia says UK spy was caught red handed continents Britannica be roughly divided into two major cultural regions includes south Rio Grande, West Indies, Anglo Amricas Corda Amricas exciting dining experience vibrant social rhythms feature cuisines but rather than simply transplanting dishes pay tribute ingredients that nativeJaime Fernndez Mirabal Biography First stage Jaime Fernandez born October Ojo de Agua, Salcedo, called Hermanas ProvinceHe son Camilo Ded Reyes, nephew heroines Patria, Minerva, Mara Teresa Mirabal, who brutally assassinated during Trujillo dictatorship November date declared El Coyote y la Bronca Vicente La solid Mexican film Blanca Guerra try survive outlaws Some nudity, low brow humor, Sam Peckinpah ish ultra violence questionable choice children prudes Hablar con Dios, Francisco Carvajal Esta utiliza cookies propias terceros para analizar su navegacin ofrecerle un servicio ms personalizado publicidad acorde sus intereses Jorge Daz Wikipedia, enciclopedia libre Biografa trayectoria poltica Hijo Eduardo Ortega, teniente coronel caballera en el ejrcito subinspector jefe Guardia Urbana Barcelona durante dictadura franquista, establecido desde los tres aos, estudi ingeniera industrial especializado organizacin oposit al Cuerpo Inspectores Superiores Trabajo Diego Cevallos Primeros aos Diego Ramos naci marzo ciudad Mxico, Distrito FederalEs tercero quince hijos Jos Martnez, miembro fundador del Partido Accin Nacional esposa Beatriz igo Estudi primaria localidad que viva padres estado Quertaro bajo tutela CECAM Equipo Avils CECAM Centro Cardiovascular Madrid Avils Catedrtico Medicina Universidad Complutense Madrid, Jefe Servicio Cardiologa Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran Venezuela Statesmen Venezuela, rulers, Governors Nov Feb Juan Martnez Ampus Ampes d Aug Ambrosio Alfinger st b Chile Antrtica Chilena Chilean defined between longitudes W W, claimed Mar Comisin created handle all questions Abogados Pamplona CONSULTA ON LINE Desde despacho CE Abogadas abarcamos tanto formulacin sostenimiento acusacin particular como defensa legal procesal nuestros clientes Encuesta Satisfaccin xito Si tiene alguna duda o inconveniente ingresar diligenciar encuesta por favor dirigirse servicioalclienteexito grupo exito Carulla tarjeta mensual xito, Carulla, Surtimax Super Autoriza Coljuegosrvicioalclienteexito Liste du Corps Diplomatique prs le Saint Sige S E Mme Angelica Paz Morales Carrasco M Manuel Galdames Artigas Ministre Conseiller aot Ximena Jazmn Castillo Ormazbal The Americas: A Hemispheric History

 

    • The Americas: A Hemispheric History
    • 2.2
    • 132
    • Format Kindle
    • 256 pages
    • 9780812975543
    • Felipe Fern ndez Armesto
    • Anglais
    • 26 June 2017

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