⥊ [PDF]- Download ᕸ Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths ⧂ PDF by Karen Armstrong 䔦

⥊ [PDF]- Download  ᕸ Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths  ⧂ PDF by Karen Armstrong 䔦 ⥊ [PDF]- Download ᕸ Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths ⧂ PDF by Karen Armstrong 䔦 1 ZION WE KNOW NOTHING about the people who first settled in the hills and valleys that would eventually become the city of Jerusalem In tombs on the Ophel hill, to the south of the present walls of the Old City, pottery vessels have been found which have been dated to 3200 BCE This was the time when towns had begun to appear in other parts of Canaan, the modern Israel in Megiddo, Jericho, Ai, Lachish, and Beth Shan, for example, archaeologists have unearthed temples, houses, workshops, streets, and water conduits But there is as yet no conclusive evidence that urban life had begun in Jerusalem at that period Ironically, the city which would be revered as the center of the world by millions of Jews, Christians, and Muslims was off the beaten track of ancient Canaan Situated in the highlands, which were difficult to settle, it was outside the hub of the country Development in the Early Bronze Age was mainly confined to the coastal plain, the fertile Jezreel Valley, and the Negev, where the Egyptians had established trade depots Canaan was a potentially rich country its inhabitants exported wine, oil, honey, bitumen, and grain It also had strategic importance, linking Asia and Africa and providing a bridge between the civilizations of Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, and Mesopotamia But even though the springs around the Ophel hill had always attracted hunters, farmers, and temporary settlersflints and shards have been found there dating from the Paleolithic AgeJerusalem, as far as we know, played no part in this early florescence In the ancient world, civilization was always a precarious achievement By about 2300 BCE there were virtually no cities left in Canaan Because of either climatic change, foreign invasion, or internecine warfare, urban life disappeared It was also a time of upheaval and instability throughout the Near East Egypt saw the destruction of what is known as the Old Kingdom c 26132160 BCE The Akkadian dynasty of Mesopotamia was overthrown by the Amorites, a Western Semitic people who established a capital at Babylon Urban sites were abandoned throughout Asia Minor, and Ugarit and Byblos, on the Phoenician coast, were destroyed For reasons that we do not understand, Syria remained unscathed and nearby towns in northern Canaan, such as Megiddo and Beth Shan, managed to survive longer than their southern neighbors Yet in all these regions the struggle to create an ordered environment where people could lead a secure and fulfilled life continued New cities and new dynasties appeared and old settlements were restored By the beginning of the second millennium the old towns of Canaan were inhabited once We know very little about life in Canaan at this period No central government developed in the country Each town was autonomous, having its own ruler and dominating the surrounding countryside, rather as in Mesopotamia, where civilization had begun Canaan remained an intensely regional country There was no large scale trade or industry, and there were such sharp differences of terrain and climate that the various districts tended to remain distinct and cut off from one another Few people lived in the highlands, the Judaean steppes, or the Jordan Valley, where the river was not navigable and led nowhere Communications were difficult, and people did not travel much from one part of the country to another The main road linking Egypt and Damascus went up the coast from Gaza to Jaffa and then cut inland to avoid the swamps around Mount Carmel toward Megiddo, the Jezreel Valley, and the Sea of Galilee Naturally these regions remained the most densely populated, and it was this area which interested the pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty when they began to extend their influence northward toward Syria during the twentieth and nineteenth centuries BCE Canaan, which the Egyptians called Retinu, did not actually become a province of Egypt, but the pharaohs dominated the country politically and economically Sesostris III, for example, did not hesitate to march up the coastal road to subdue local rulers who were becoming too powerful and independent Even so, the pharaohs showed relatively little interest in other parts of Canaan, and despite the general Egyptian overlordship, towns such as Megiddo, Hazor, and Acco developed into fortified city states By the end of the nineteenth century, settlers had also begun to penetrate the hill country and built cities there Shechem became the most powerful of these fortified highland towns in area it may have been as large as thirty seven acres, and it controlled a considerable part of the countryside Cities, such as Hebron and Jerusalem, also developed in the southern hills This is the point when Jerusalem can be said to have entered history In 1961 the British archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon discovered a wall, nearly six and a half feet thick, running along the eastern slope of the Ophel hill with a large gate near the Gihon Spring She concluded that this town wall continued around the southern end of the hill and along the western slope In the north it disappeared under a later city wall Kenyon also found pottery between the wall and the rock scarp which dated to about 1800 BCE The city was most vulnerable in the north, and later the citadel of Zion was built there it is possible that there was also a fortress in the north of the city during the eighteenth century BCE The walls were built quite low down the eastern slope of the Ophel, possibly to include access to an underground tunnel to the Gihon Spring.1 The British engineer Charles Warren had discovered this tunnel in 1867 it started at an opening in the rock within the city, descended obliquely, and then plunged vertically to meet the water which had been conveyed from the Gihon by means of another horizontal tunnel Jugs and pitchers could be lowered down the shaft during a siege Similar devices have been discovered at Megiddo, Gezer, and Gibeon Kenyon believed that the shaft was in use during the Bronze Age, but her theory has been disputed some doubt that the inhabitants would have had the technological skill to build such a system at this stage But recent geological findings indicate that Warrens Shaft, as it is known, is not entirely man made it is a natural sinkhole along a joint in the limestone, which the ancient Jerusalemites could well have modified and enlarged Settlers were probably attracted to the Ophel because of its proximity to the Gihon The site also had strategic advantages, lying at the point where the foothills of the highlands give way to the Judaean desert The Ophel could not support a large populationthe city covered an area of little than nine acresbut three steep valleys gave the settlers formidable protection the Kidron Valley to the east, the Valley of Hinnom or Gehenna to the south, and the Central Valley, now largely silted up, which the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus called the Tyropoeon Valley, to the west.3 Even though the town was not one of the most important cities of Canaan, it seems to have come to the attention of the Egyptians In 1925, sherds were bought in Luxor which, when reassembled, made up about eighty dishes and vases inscribed with an ancient hieratic script When this was deciphered, the texts were found to contain the names of countries, towns, and rulers alleged to be the enemies of Egypt These vases would then be smashed in a rite of sympathetic magic designed to bring about the downfall of the recalcitrant vassals The vases have been dated to the reign of Pharaoh Sesostris III 18781842 BCE they include the names of nineteen Canaanite cities, one of which is Rushalimum This is the first mention of the city in any historical record The text also names two of its princes, Yqrm and Shashan In another of these so called Execration Texts, thought to have been inscribed a century later, Rushalimum is cursed again, but this time the city appears to have only one ruler From this slender shred of evidence, some scholars have inferred that during the eighteenth century, Jerusalem, like the rest of Canaan, had evolved from a tribal society with a number of chieftains to an urban settlement governed by a single king Here we should pause to consider the name of the city It seems to have incorporated the name of the Syrian god Shalem, who was identified with the setting sun or the evening star Canaan may have been dominated politically by Egypt, but in cultural and religious affairs the chief influence was Syria In Hazor, Megiddo, and Shechem, temples of this period have been unearthed that have clearly been built on a Syrian model They are constructed according to the same basic plan as the kings palace, underlining the fact that all rule was seen to derive from the gods The laity were forbidden to enter the Hekhal, or cult hall, just as they were denied access to the kings presence They could glimpse the gods effigy, which was placed in a niche at the end of the hall, from the courtyard, through the open doors of the Hekhal No Bronze Age temple has been unearthed in Jerusalem, but the citys name shows that the inhabitants were also open to Syrian religion The names of the Jerusalem princes in the Execration Texts indicate that, like the people of Syria, the Jerusalemites were of Western Semitic origin and shared the same worldview.SPLENDID Eminently sane and patient Essential reading for Jews, Christians, and Muslims alike The Washington PostVenerated for millennia by three faiths, torn by irreconcilable conflict, conquered, rebuilt, and mourned for again and again, Jerusalem is a sacred city whose very sacredness has engendered terrible tragedy In this fascinating volume, Karen Armstrong, author of the highly praised A History of God, traces the history of how Jews, Christians, and Muslims have all laid claim to Jerusalem as their holy place, and how three radically different concepts of holiness have shaped and scarred the city for thousands of years.Armstrong unfolds a complex story of spiritual upheaval and political transformation from King David s capital to an administrative outpost of the Roman Empire, from the cosmopolitan city sanctified by Christ to the spiritual center conquered and glorified by Muslims, from the gleaming prize of European Crusaders to the bullet ridden symbol of the present day Arab Israeli conflict Written with grace and clarity, the product of years of meticulous research, Jerusalem combines the pageant of history with the profundity of searching spiritual analysis Like Karen Armstrong s A History of God, Jerusalem is a book for the ages.THE BEST SERIOUS, ACCESSIBLE HISTORY OF THE MOST SPIRITUALLY IMPORTANT CITY IN THE WORLD The Balti SunA WORK OF IMPRESSIVE SWEEP AND GRANDEUR Los Angeles Times Book Review Jerusalem Wikipedia From upper left Jerusalem skyline looking north from St Elijah Monastery, a souq in the Old City, Mamilla Mall, Knesset, Dome of Rock, citadel known as Tower David and City walls, Western Wall One Three Faiths Kindle edition by is most comprehensive ancient to contemporary work on modern libraries Karen Armstrong s writing style accessible for average readers while preserving academic integrity Old The Hebrew , Ha Ir Atiqah, Arabic al Balda Qadimah square kilometers sq mi walled area within city Until when Jewish neighborhood Mishkenot Sha ananim was established, this constituted entire Sacred Sites Religious Travel Panoramic view Mount Olives Photo Bienchido A mountainous with year history, sacred three great monotheistic religions Judaism, Christianity Islam which means it than third world population For Jews, All You Need Know Sep Characterized narrow, winding streets alleyways, part filled shrines attractions holy Christians Muslims including Wall, Temple Church Holy Sepulchre Main Events In History Of Timeline listed Egyptian Execration Texts first recorded mention Rusalimum BCE Hyksos Period The Crusaders Capture Jerusalem, Exulting joy we reached Tuesday, June besieged wonderful manner Robert Normandy northern side, near church Stephen, martyr, who there stoned Christ name Jlm Pass itraveljerusalem Downtown heart metropolis, nightlife, dining culture rival any major made up several neighborhoods, colorful Mahane Yehuda Market, charming Nahalat Shiva, bustling Ben CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Before AD occupied same position present, except that its southern extremity has remained outside walls since reign Hadrian Thanks, however, systematic operations undertaken English, American, German engineers, much old wall Municipality Official Website Tours Hall Sukkot Free tour at Visitor Center municipality includes council hall, amazing model new an observation point offering breathtaking neighborhoods Pictures, Facts capital Israel also largest said be oldest holiest It history takes you back th millennium BC Gates Virtual Library Damascus Nablus Gate Located wall, busiest magnificent all gates gate consists one large center originally intended use persons high station, New World Encyclopedia Yerushalayim Quds Middle Eastern key importance Christianity, IslamPerhaps no earth binds hearts believers so complete way Today home legislature, Kenesset, What significance Jerusalem Question What Answer millennia, been important city, often commanding attention world, figures prominently both biblical prophecy central many events Bible situated edge Download once read your device, PC, phones or tablets Use features like bookmarks, note taking highlighting reading If go need walk Good walking shoes are Lots stairs uneven floor Be aware Main timeline Not far can find some vibrant entertainment shopping centers Mall just few steps Jaffa counts luxurious replete end shops, Hotel Akasha Spa collection restaurants views Zion south, main used Defense Forces enter capture stones surrounding still pockmarked weapons fire Karen My wish Charter Compassion TED People want religious, says scholar should help make religion force harmony She asks community build restore Golden Rule global religious doctrine Case God FREE shipping qualifying offers nuanced exploration plays human life, drawing insights past order faith speaks needs our dangerously polarized age Moving Paleolithic present Let revive Talk Weeks launch, looks role st century Will dogmas divide us Or will unite common good reviews catalysts drive faiths rediscover Welcome Armstrong, Reiki Master Inside Out Welcome owner Newmarket, ON provides services training individuals well Biophoton Light Therapy Enneagram Workshops Wildmoor, Worcestershire, november een Brits auteur en expert op het terrein van de religie aanverwante zaken Haar specialiteiten zijn christendom, jodendom islamHaar boeken worden gekenmerkt door vrijzinnige syncretische kijk verschijnsel godsdienst Religion about Belief The There is, perhaps, symbol powerful, word electric And because monotheisms undergirds sustains structure people worldviews, if command millions, do invoke claim spoke Bill Moyers Journal Watch Listen PBS With economic, political, social strife across globe, prominent discusses commonalities her international charter compassion Charter Compassion Strategic Plan December Summary Objective Given ,, respected awarded prize groundbreaking work, February funding ARMSTRONG FLOORING, INC FLOORCREDIT ROUND TABLE FLOOR COVERING CREDIT GROUP ARMSTRONG Flooring, Inc aka AFI AHFC Hardwood Flooring Co Myths About Neil Flight Moon Landmark scientific discovery imagination such degree certain aspects become enveloped cloud mystery bizarre interpretations eventually emerge July lunar voyage exception Moon Astronotes Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths


    • Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths
    • 1.4
    • 85
    • Format Kindle
    • 512 pages
    • 0345391683
    • Karen Armstrong
    • Anglais
    • 16 February 2017

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