๞ level 1 reading ╥ The American Revolution: A History online free Ꮗ By Gordon S Wood ᪛

๞ level 1 reading ╥ The American Revolution: A History online free Ꮗ By Gordon S Wood ᪛ ๞ level 1 reading ╥ The American Revolution: A History online free Ꮗ By Gordon S Wood ᪛ Chapter IOriginsThe origins of the Revolution necessarily lie deep in Americas past A century and a half of dynamic developments in the British continental colonies of the New World had fundamentally transformed inherited European institutions and customary patterns of life and had left many colonists believing that they were seriously deviating from the cultivated norms of European life In comparison with prosperous and powerful metropolitan England, America in the middle of the eighteenth century seemed a primitive, backward place, disordered and turbulent, without a real aristocracy, without magnificent courts or large urban centers, indeed, without any of the attributes of the civilized world Consequently, the colonists repeatedly felt pressed to apologize for the crudity of their society, the insignificance of their art and literature, and the triviality of their affairs.Suddenly in the 1760s Great Britain thrust its imperial power into this changing world with a thoroughness that had not been felt in a century and precipitated a crisis within the loosely organized empire American resistance turned into rebellion but as the colonists groped to make sense of the peculiarities of their society, this rebellion became a justification and idealization of American life as it had gradually and unintentionally developed over the previous century and a half Instead of being in the backwaters of history, Americans suddenly saw themselves as a new society ideally equipped for a republican future In this sense, as John Adams later said, the Revolution was effected before the war commenced It was a change in the minds and hearts of the people.But this change was not the whole American Revolution The Revolution was not simply an intellectual endorsement of a previously existing social reality It was also an integral part of the great transforming process that carried America into the liberal democratic society of the modern world Although colonial America was already a different place from Europe in 1760, it still retained, along with powdered wigs and knee breeches, many traditional habits of monarchical behavior and dependent social relationships The Revolution shattered what remained of these traditional patterns of life and prepared the way for the fluid, bustling, individualistic world that followed.The changes were remarkable, and they gave the American people as grand a vision of their future as any people have ever had Americans saw their new nation not only leading a world revolution on behalf of republicanism and liberty but also becoming the place where the best of all the arts and sciences would flourish What began as a colonial rebellion on the very edges of the civilized world was transformed into an earth shaking eventan event that promised, as one clergyman declared, to create out of the perishing World a new World, a young world, a World of countless Millions, all in the fair Bloom of Piety.THE GROWTH AND MOVEMENT OF POPULATIONIn 1763, Great Britain straddled the world with the greatest and richest empire since the fall of Rome From India to the Mississippi River its armies and navies had been victorious The Peace of Paris that concluded the Seven Years War or the French and Indian War, as the Americans called itgave Britain undisputed dominance over the eastern half of North America From the defeated powers, France and Spain, Britain acquired huge chunks of territory in the New Worldall of Canada, East and West Florida, and millions of fertile acres between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River France turned over to Spain the territory of Louisiana in compensation for Spains loss of Florida and thus this most fearsome of Britains enemies removed itself altogether from the North American continent.Yet at the moment of Britains supremacy there were powerful forces at work that would soon, almost overnight, change everything In the aftermath of the Seven Years War, British officials found themselves having to make long postponed decisions concerning the colonies that would set in motion a chain of events that ultimately shattered the empire.Ever since the formation of the British Empire in the late seventeenth century, royal officials and bureaucrats had been interested in reforming the ramshackle imperial structure and in expanding royal authority over the American colonists But most of their schemes had been blocked by English ministries concerned with the patronage of English politics than with colonial reform Under such circumstances the empire had been allowed to grow haphazardly, without much control from London People from different places in Europe had been allowed to settle in the colonies, and land had been given out freely.Although few imperial officials had ever doubted that the colonies were supposed to be inferior to the mother country and dependent on it, in fact the empire had not worked that way The relationship that had developed reflected the irrational and inefficient nature of the imperial systemthe variety of offices, the diffusion of power, and the looseness of organization Even in trade regulation, which was the empires main business, inefficiency, loopholes, and numerous opportunities for corruption prevented the imperial authorities from interfering substantively with the colonists pursuit of their own economic and social interests.By the middle of the eighteenth century, however, new circumstances began forcing changes in this irrational but working relationship The British coloniesthere were twenty two of them in the Western Hemisphere in 1760were becoming too important to be treated as casually as the mother country had treated them in the first half of the eighteenth century Dynamic developments throughout the greater British world demanded that England pay attention to its North Ameri can colonies.The most basic of these developments were the growth and movement of population In the middle decades of the eighteenth century, the number of people throughout the whole English speaking worldin Britain and the colonies alikewas increasing at unprecedented rates During the 1740s the population of England, which had hardly grown at all for half a century, suddenly began to increase The populations of Ireland and Scotland had been rising steadily since the beginning of the eighteenth century The population of the North American colonies was growing even faster virtually explodingand had been doing so almost since the beginning of the settlements Indeed, the North American colonists continued to multiply rapidly than any other people in the Western world Between 1750 and 1770 they doubled in number, from 1 million to than 2 million, and thereby became an even important part of the British world In 1700 the American population had been only one twentieth of the British and Irish populations combined by 1770 it was nearly one fifth, and such farsighted colonists as Benjamin Franklin were predicting that sooner or later the center of the British Empire would shift to America.Everywhere the expanding British population was in motion, moving from village to village and from continent to continent In Britain growing numbers of migrants in a few decades created the new industrial cities of Birmingham, Manchester, and Leeds and made London the largest urban center in the Western world A steady stream moved from the British Isles across the Atlantic to the New World The migration of Protestant Irish and Scots that had begun early in the century increased after the Seven Years War of the 1750s Between 1764 and 1776 some 125,000 people left the British Isles for the American colonies From the colonial port towns, particularly Philadelphia, British immigrants and Germans from the Rhine Valley joined with increasing numbers of colonists to spread over half a continent along a variety of routes.For nearly a century and a half the colonists had been confined to a several hundred mile wide strip of territory along the Atlantic coast But in the middle decades of the eighteenth century, the pressures of increasing population density began to be felt Overcultivated soil in the East was becoming depleted Particularly in the Chesapeake areas the number of tenants was visibly growing Older towns now seemed overcrowded, especially in New England, and young men coming of age could no longer count on obtaining pieces of land as their fathers had done Throughout the colonies and people were on the move many drifted into the small colonial cities, which were ill equipped to handle them By 1772 in Philadelphia, the percentage of poor was eight times greater than it had been twenty years earlier, and almshouses were being constructed and filled as never before Most of these transient poor, however, saw the cities only as way stations in their endless search for land on which they might re create the stability they had been forced to abandon.With the defeat of the French, people set out in all directions, eager to take advantage of the newly acquired land in the interior In 1759 speculators and settlers moved into the area around Lake Champlain and westward along the Mohawk River into central New York Between 1749 and 1771, New Yorks population grew from 73,348 to 168,007 Tens of thousands of colonists and new immigrants pushed into western Pennsylvania and southward into the Carolinas along routes on each side of Virginias Blue Ridge Along these roads strings of townsfrom York, Pennsylvania, to Camden, South Carolinaquickly developed to service the travelers and to distribute produce to distant markets The growth of settlement was phenomenal In Pennsylvania twenty nine new localities were created between 1756 and 1765 in these few years than in the colonys entire previous history North Carolina increased its population sixfold between 1750 and 1775 to become the fourth largest colony.New frontiers appeared everywhere throughout British North America By the early 1760s hunters and explorers such as Daniel Boone began opening up paths westward through the Appalachians Settlers soon followed Some moved southward to the valley of the Holston River and to the headwaters of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, and others spread northwest into the Ohio Valley and the Kentucky basin Some drifted down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to join overland migrants from the southern colonies in the new province of West Florida, and thus completed a huge encirclement of the new western territory.During the decade and a half before Independence, New England throbbed with movement By the early 1760s the number of transients drifting from town to town through out the region multiplied dramatically, in some counties doubling or tripling the numbers of the previous decade Many farmers gave up searching for opportunities within established communities and set out for distant places on the very edges of the expanded empire Massachusetts and Connecticut colonists trekked not only to northern New England and Nova Scotia, but to areas as far away as the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania and the lower Mississippi River Indeed, the largest single addition to the population of West Florida came from the settlement of four hundred families from Connecticut in 177374 Between 1760 and 1776 some 20,000 people from southern New England moved up the Connecticut River into New Hampshire and into what would later become Vermont In that same period migrants from Massachusetts streamed into Maine and founded 94 towns A total of 264 new towns were established in northern New England during the years between 1760 and 1776.British and colonial authorities could scarcely comprehend the meaning of this enormous explosion of people in search of land The colonists, one astonished official observed, were moving as their avidity and restlessness incite them They acquire no attachment to place but wandering about seems engrafted in their nature and it is a weakness incident to it that they should forever imagine the lands further off are still better than those upon which they are already settled Land fever infected all levels of society While Ezra Stiles, a minister in Newport, Rhode Island, and later the president of Yale University, bought and sold small shares in places all over New England and in Pennsylvania and New York, influential figures like Benjamin Franklin were concocting huge speculative schemes in the vast unsettled lands of the West.All this movement had far reaching effects on American society and its place in the British Empire The fragmentation of households, churches, and communities increased, and the colonial governments lost control of the mushrooming new settlements In the backcountry, lawlessness and vagrancy became common, and disputes over land claims and colonial boundaries increased sharply But the most immediate effect of this rapid spread of peopleand the effect that was most obvious to imperial officials by mid centurywas the pressure that the migrations placed on the native peoples.At the beginning of the Seven Years War, the problems of restless and angry Native Americans in the West compelled the British government for the first time to take over from the colonies the direct control of Indian affairs Two British officials, one each for the northern and southern regions, now had the task of pacifying tribes of Indians, whom one of the superintendents described as the most formidable of any uncivilized body of people in the world.Although the European invasion of the New World had drastically reduced the numbers of the native peoples, largely through the spread of disease, about 150,000 Indians remained in the area east of the Mississippi New England had few hostile Indians, but in New York there were 2,000 warriors, mostly fierce Senecas, left from the once formidable Six Nations of the Iroquois In the Susquehanna and Ohio Valleys dwelled a variety of tribes, mostly Delawares, Shawnees, Mingos, and Hurons, who claimed about 12,000 fighting men On the southern frontiers the Indian presence was even forbidding From the Carolinas to the Yazoo River were some 14,000 warriors, mainly Cherokees, Creeks, Chocktaws, and Chickasaws Although these native peoples were often deeply divided from one another and had reached different degrees of accommodation with the European settlers, most of them were anxious to resist further white encroachment on their lands.After French authority had been eliminated from Canada and Spanish authority from Florida, the Native Americans were no longer able to play one European power off against the other Britain now had sole responsibility for regulating the profitable fur trade and for maintaining peace between whites and Indians The problems were awesome Not only were many whites prepared to use brandy and rum to achieve their aims, but they had conflicting interests Some traders favored regulation of the fur trade, and others did not But all traders favored the establishment in the West of Indian reservations that settlers would not be permitted to invade, and they drew on the support of humanitarian groups who were concerned with the Indians fate Land speculators, however, wanted to move the Indians westward and open territory for white settlement Confused, lied to, and cheated of their land and their furs by greedy white traders and land hungry migrants, the Indians retaliated with atrocities and raids Some tribes attempted to form coalitions and wage full scale war.Thus the end of the Seven Years War did not end vio lence on the frontier From the devastating Cherokee War of 175961 in South Carolina to the assault on the Shawnees in 1774 by Lord Dun, the royal governor of Virginia, British officials repeatedly had to use royal troops to put down Indian revolts The biggest Indian rebellion of the period occurred in 1763 following the British takeover of the former French forts in the West In just a few weeks Indians from several tribes that had joined together under the leadership of an Ottawa chief named Pontiac surprised and destroyed all but three of the British posts west of the Appalachians Before they were pushed back by British troops, the angry warriors had penetrated eastward into the backcountry of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia and had killed than 2,000 colonists It is no wonder that many royal authorities in the 1760s concluded that only the presence of regular troops of the British army could maintain peace in the American borderlands of the empire From the Hardcover edition.Remarkable, invaluable.Jonathan Yardley, The Washington Post Book World Wood is the preeminent historian of the Revolution Here he manages to boil down to its essence this crucial period in the countrys history without in the process reducing it to History Lite His account of the emergence and development of rank and file political opinion is especially provocative and informative, but then so is just about everything else in this remarkable, invaluable book The Washington Post Book World An elegant, concise and lucid summary of the Revolutions origins, the war itself, and the social and political changes wrought by the struggle for American independence The Wall Street Journal This slim book tells a big story one that invites the reader to contemplate the relationships between liberty, power, rights and the unpredictable outcomes of human action Los Angeles Times Book Review An elegant synthesis done by the leading scholar in the field, which nicely integrates the work on the American Revolution over the last three decades but never loses contact with the older, classic questions that we have been arguing about for over two hundred years.Joseph J Ellis, author of Founding Brothers The American Revolution Home The situation in which I now stand for the last time, midst of representatives people United States, naturally recalls period when administration present form government commenced, and can not omit occasion to congratulate you my country on success experiment, nor repeat fervent supplications Supreme Ruler American Causes, Battles, Aftermath, Facts also called US War Independence was insurrection fought between through Great Britain s North colonies threw off British rule establish sovereign States America, founded with Declaration attempts assert greater control over colonial affairs after a long LIBERTY PBS LIBERTY Online is official online companion PBS series It features wealth interactive information Revolution, Revolutionary Wikipedia Clockwise Surrender Lord Cornwallis Siege Yorktown, Battle Trenton, Death General Warren at Bunker Hill, Long Island, Guilford Court House Revolutionary HISTORY an by Patriots rule, resulting independence , known as National Park Service This Service Web Site 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Angeles Chargers Player Profile Melvin player profile, game log, season stats, career recent news If play fantasy sports, get breaking immerse yourself ultimate fan experience Welcome Timberly Timberly site Terry Scott unique art Gallery Hunua Cedar Inn Deadwood, South Dakota Cedar located Deadwood legendary gold rush town nestled Black Hills Dakota outlaw history, vibrant casino industry, friendly community Timberhead Music Store Bok Timberhead small publishing company recording label music BokAlthough some earlier albums print, all available favorite digital outlet carry limited selection other artists Henry by Henry green mixed traffic tender originally failed prototype engine, needed special Welsh operate properly Following accident pulling Kipper, underwent extensive rebuild, giving him shape The American Revolution: A History


    • The American Revolution: A History
    • 4.1
    • 326
    • Format Kindle
    • 224 pages
    • 0812970411
    • Gordon S Wood
    • Anglais
    • 27 February 2017

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