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ರ reading ᘧ The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion (English Edition) online ಸ Kindle Author Virginia Postrel ೯

ರ reading ᘧ The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion (English Edition) online ಸ Kindle Author Virginia Postrel ೯ ರ reading ᘧ The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion (English Edition) online ಸ Kindle Author Virginia Postrel ೯ The Power of Glamour ONE THE MAGIC OF GLAMOUR When she was four years old, Michaela DePrince saw a picture that changed her life Then known as Mabinty Bangura, she was living in an orphanage in Sierra Leone her father had been murdered during the countrys civil war, and her mother had starved to death Even among the orphans the little girl was an outcast, deemed an unadoptable devil child because of her rebellious personality and the vitiligo that left white patches on her dark skin One day, a discarded Western magazine blew against the orphanages fence, carrying with it an image from a mysterious and distant world There was a lady on it, she was on her tippy toes, in this pink, beautiful tutu, DePrince recalls I had never seen anything like thisa costume that stuck out with glitter on it I could just see the beauty in that person and the hope and the love and just everything that I didnt have She thought, This is what I want to be Entranced by the photo, the little girl ripped off the magazines cover and hid it in her underwear Every night she would gaze at it and dream The image of the graceful, smiling ballerina represented freedom, it represented hope, it represented trying to live a little longer Seeing it completely saved me, she says She yearned to become this exact person DePrince was lucky Adopted by an American couple not long after she found the magazine, she showed her new mother the tattered clipping and began studying ballet when she settled in New Jersey By age seven she was already dancing en pointe, and in 2012, at seventeen, she joined the Dance Theatre of Harlem as a professional ballerina I just moved along fast, she says, because I was so determined to be like that person on the magazine.1 DePrinces story is not just a heartwarming tale Its an illustration of a common and powerful phenomenon The same imaginative process that led an orphaned child to see her ideal self in a photo of a ballerina has sent nations to war and put men on the moon, transformed the landscape and built business empires It made California the Golden State and Paris the City of Light Cinema and fashion traffic in it so do tourism and construction It sells penthouses and cruises, sports cars and high heeled shoes, college educations and presidential candidates It inspires religious vocations and scientific research, suicidal terrorism and show business dreams It gives form to desire and substance to hope Glamour The word itself has mystique, spelled even in American English with that exotic u When we hear glamour, we envision beautiful movie stars in designer gowns or imagine sleek sports cars and the dashing men who drive them For a moment, we project ourselves into the world they represent, a place in which we, too, are beautiful, admired, graceful, courageous, accomplished, desired, powerful, wealthy, or at ease Glamour, the fashion writer Alicia Drake observes, offers the implicit promise of a life devoid of mediocrity.2 It lifts us out of everyday experience and makes our desires seem attainable Glamour, writes the fashion critic Robin Givhan, makes us feel good about ourselves by making us believe that life can sparkle.3 Consider two glamorous images The first, from a 2008 ad for the Riviera Palm Springs hotel, employs the stereotypical elements of what many people think of as glamour With their glistening luxury, the black limousine, white satin, and pearl necklaces hark back to the black and white films of the 1930s, evoking the styles we now call old Hollywood glamour Glowing against the desert twilight in her strapless gown and elegant updo, the model contrasts with the dimly lit photographers in their jeans, distancing herself from their workaday world She is specialthe center of attention and the embodiment of luxury, admiration, and fame Even as she smiles for the cameras, she remains inaccessible her cool self possession is cordoned off from the eager camera flashes by a velvet rope She doesnt look us in the eye, preserving her mystery and allowing us to enter the photo and imagine ourselves in her place transformed into stars, living a life of excitement and acclaim in the Palm Springs of legend By not looking us in the eye, the model allows us to enter the photo and imagine ourselves in her place transformed into stars, living a life of excitement and acclaim in the Palm Springs of legend.Riviera Palm SpringsIf the Riviera scene represents popular stereotypes of glamour, Toni Frissells evocative 1947 photograph of a lithe young woman in tennis clothes, at the beginning of this chapter, reminds us that glamours essential elements have nothing to do with red carpets, limousines, or satin gowns Here we see a tranquil picture of a desert getaway Perched gracefully on a curving stucco wall, the model looks not at the viewer but at the hills beyond Like the Rivieras star, she appears poised and self contained this woman, however, appears to be alone We follow her gaze, trace the light along the top of her extended arm, and imagine the sun on our own skin We do not know who or where she is, nor do we need to The mystery again encourages us to project ourselves into the scene, filling in the details with our own desires Rather than documenting a particular place or fashion moment, the portrait evokes timeless ideals It embodies youth, beauty, athleticism, self possession, wealth, leisure, andpublished in a February issue of Harpers Bazaarescape to a benign eternal summer No sweat, sunburn, or dehydration here This image, too, heightens the viewers yearning for the life it represents not of fame and excitement in this case but of tranquility and ease It, too, is glamorous Although people often equate them, glamour is not the same as beauty, stylishness, luxury, celebrity, or sex appeal It is not limited to fashion or film, nor is it intrinsically feminine It is not a collection of aesthetic markersa style, as fashion and design use the word.4 Glamour is, rather, a form of nonverbal rhetoric, which moves and persuades not through words but through images, concepts, and totems Even when conjured as word pictures, glamorous images are perceived and remembered as emotionally resonant snapshots, not verbal descriptions By binding image and desire, glamour gives us pleasure, even as it heightens our yearning It leads us to feel that the life we dream of exists, and to desire it even Photo by Grey Crawford, interior design by Darryl WilsonThough usually a transitory pleasure, this sensation can also inspire life changing action From the cub reporters imagining themselves as the Woodward and Bernstein of All the Presidents Men to the forensic science students inspired by CSI Crime Scene Investigation, young people flock to careers made suddenly glamorous by dramas that highlight professions importance and downplay their tedium.5 For the novelist Yiyun Li, then a child in 1970s China, the glamour of American life emanated from a Western candy wrapper, the prize of her collection It was made of cellophane with transparent gold and silver stripes, and if you looked through it, you would see a gilded world, much fancier than our everyday, dull life The wrapper, she writes, was the seed of a dream that came true I left China for an American graduate school in 1996 and have lived here since.6 Courtesy of Aston MartinGlamour is powerfully persuasive Yet because it relies on imagery and channels desire, it is often dismissed as trivial, frivolous, and superficial Photographers use glamour euphemistically to refer to soft core erotica interior design magazines apply the word to anything shiny or luxurious and many self styled glamour addicts assume glamour refers only to fashion, makeup, or hairstyling Those who do take the phenomenon seriously tend to be critics, who condemn glamour as a base, manipulative fraud We are bewitched by the false god of glamour and the fake promise of advertising, writes the British clergyman and journalist Martin Wroe.7 But there is much to glamour than either addicts or critics imagine Even in its most seemingly frivolous forms, glamour shapes our most fundamental choices and illuminates our deepest yearnings Although often perilous and always selective, it is not intrinsically malign Glamour, as we shall see throughout this book, is a pervasive, complex, and often life enhancing force Glamour is, as David Hume said of luxury, a word of an uncertain signification.8 In recent years, cultural studies scholars have attempted to limn histories of glamour.9 But without addressing the underlying psychology or adequately developing a theory of exactly how glamour works, such research tends to devolve into catchall chronicles of fashion and celebrity The results can be ludicrous, as when the historian Stephen Gundle declares Paris Hilton indisputably glamorous.10 At the height of her celebrity, Hilton was many things rich, famous, photogenic, sexy, pretty, and stylishly dressed But few adults found her glamorous She was the antiGrace Kelly, the touchstone people cited when trying to explain what is not glamorous.11 John Althouse Cohen under CC BY 2.0 licenseTo avoid such pitfalls, this book begins by building a definition of glamour that allows us to distinguish glamour from style, celebrity, or fame to establish the relationship between glamour and such associated phenomena as charisma, romance, spectacle, elegance, and sex appeal and to identify the common elements uniting disparate versions of glamour across audiences and cultural contexts In this chapter, we begin to understand what kind of phenomenon glamour is like humor, a form of communication that elicits a distinctive emotional response In the next chapter, well identify and investigate that responsea sense of projection and longingand explore why so many different objects can produce it what glamour does We will discover that, like the gilded world seen through a candy wrapper, glamour is an illusion known to be false but felt to be true, which focuses and intensifies a preexisting but previously inchoate yearning The following three chapters then extract and examine the essential elementsa promise of escape and transformation grace and mysterythat appear in all versions of glamour and distinguish it from other forms of nonverbal rhetoric, thus explaining how glamour works As we develop this theory, well also learn how to detect glamours less obvious manifestations and, potentially, how to construct or dispel it The theory allows us to understand why such diverse and sometimes contradictory things can seem glamorous how Jackie Kennedy is like the Chrysler Building or a sports car like a Moleskine notebook, or why some audiences might find glamour in nuns, wind turbines, or Star Trek Well also resolve certain smaller puzzles Why, for instance, is glamour so easily lost How can it be associated so strongly with both elegance and sex appeal What is its connection to androgyny Why are certain aesthetic tropes, such as glittering light, silhouettes, or black and white imagery, so often associated with it Having built a specific definition for glamour, we can then examine its history without fear of going astray Beginning with chapter six, well trace the growth and evolution of glamour as both a spontaneous phenomenon and a calculated tool of persuasion Well first examine how, and under what conditions, glamour manifested itself in premodern times and how it changed and proliferated with the growth of large, commercial cities Then, in chapter seven, well look at the forms and influence of glamour in the twentieth century, focusing on its importance in exploring and defining modernity Finally, well consider how glamour has evolved in todays media savvy and fragmented culture In addition to the books primary text, which uses examples to identify and illustrate theoretical and historical patterns, the Icon sidebars offer detailed examinations of glamorous archetypes Instead of focusing on one specific feature of glamour, each icon allows us to see glamours many different aspects at work simultaneously Together, the icons also demonstrate the wide variety of glamours manifestations, from the fashionable femininity of the Gibson Girl to the high tech freedom of wirelessness Like most of the books images, the icons are placed in chapters where they have particular resonance or complement the argument, but they are not addressed in the main text Holographically drawing on the books ideas, the content of each Icon sidebar is not limited to the subject of a single chapter, and the sidebars need not be read in a particular order We begin not with the phenomenon but with the word, whose history offers valuable clues to the nature of glamour Popularized in English by Sir Walter Scott at the turn of the nineteenth century, the old Scots word glamour described a literal magic spell Glamour or a glamour made its subject see things that werent there A 1721 glossary of poetry explained When devils, wizards or jugglers deceive the sight, they are said to cast glamour oer the eyes of the spectator.12 Glamour could, Scott wrote in 1805, make a ladye seem a knight The cobwebs on a dungeon wall Seem tapestry in lordly hall That power was believed to stretch into the real world In his diary, Scott worried that a kind of glamour about me was making him overlook errors in his page proofs he wondered whether the right herbal concoction would dispel this fascination.13 As both magic and metaphor, glamour and fascination are closely related During the nineteenth century, glamour expanded to include less literal charms, while maintaining the sense of making things look better than they really were The glamour of inexperience is over your eyes, Mr Rochester tells Jane Eyre when she calls his mansion splendid, and you see it through a charmed medium you cannot discern that the gilding is slime and the silk draperies cobwebs that the marble is sordid slate, and the polished woods mere refuse chips and scaly bark.14 In his 1898 novella Youth, Joseph Conrad wrote, Oh, the glamour of youth Oh, the fire of it, dazzling than the flames of the burning ship, throwing a magic light on the wide earth, leaping audaciously to the sky He wistfully recalled the deceitful feeling that lures us on to joys, to perils, to love, to vain effort.15 Note that Conrad is not saying that it is glamorous to be younga judgment from the outside Rather, his glamour of youth is an internal, psychological state Young people, he suggests, are particularly susceptible to glamour Like a veil, a distorted lens, or a mind altering drug, the charmed medium of glamour affects not the object perceived but the person perceiving Reflecting this sense of the word, by 1902 Websters included two new definitions a kind of haze in the air, causing things to appear different from what they really are and any artificial interest in, or association with, an object, through which it appears delusively magnified or glorified.16 The glamour of battle is among the most ancient and enduring forms of glamour, and military recruiting ads continue to draw on it.U.S Department of DefenseAs useful as this history is, however, we shouldnt confuse the word glamour with the phenomenon, since the lack of a specific word to describe an experience does not mean that the experience does not exist Max Weber did not invent charisma Umami, the hearty fifth taste, is not unique to Japanese palates While some scholars maintain that glamour is inherently modern, this book argues that the experience is not unique to the modern cultures that use the word, only widespread and likely to be deliberately constructed and consciously recognized.17 Nonetheless, the history of the word glamour does highlight two important aspects of the phenomenon First, glamour is an illusion, a deceitful feeling or magic light that distorts perceptions The illusion usually begins with a stylized imagevisual or mentalof a person, an object, an event, or a setting The image is not entirely false, but it is deceptive Its allure is created by obscuring or ignoring some details while heightening others That selection may reflect deliberate craft Or it may happen unconsciously, when an audience notices appealing characteristics and ignores discordant elements In either case, glamour requires the audiences innocence or, often, willing suspension of disbelief To glamorize is to fantasize It is also, in some sense, to lie The best photographers are the best liars, said the twentieth century fashion photographer Norman Parkinson, who was known for the glamour of his work.18 Even when it arises unintentionally, glamour presents an edited version of reality There are no bills on the new granite countertops, no blisters rubbed by the elegant shoes, no cumbersome cords on the stylish lamps, no bruises on the action hero, no traffic on the open road, no sacrifices in the path of progress Second, glamour does not exist independently in the glamorous objectit is not a style, personal quality, or aesthetic featurebut emerges through the interaction between object and audience Glamour is not something you possess but something you perceive, not something you have but something you feel It is a subjective response to a stimulus One may strive to construct a glamorous effect, but success depends on the perceivers receptive imagination Young men must imagine seafaring as a series of adventures and triumphs Jane Eyre must want to see the mansion as splendid, not to look for cobwebs and slime, or for the moral rot of a madwoman in the attic Consider, by contrast, a passage from Peter Pan, in which the glamour of the pirate life, presumably derived from boys adventure tales, fails to work its magic on Wendy No words of mine can tell you how Wendy despised those pirates To the boys there was at least some glamour in the pirate calling but all that she saw was that the ship had not been tidied for years There was not a porthole on the grimy glass of which you might not have written with your finger Dirty pig and she had already written it on several.19 Unsusceptible to pirate glamour, Wendy sees the grime that the boys, like Jane Eyre, overlook A glamorous person, setting, or style will not produce glamour unless that object resonates with the audiences aspirations, and unless the audience is willing to entertain the illusion Conversely, one audience may find glamorous something another audience deems ordinary or even repulsive Library of CongressWe see these two characteristicsillusion and subjective responseplaying out in one of the phenomenons oldest forms martial glamour From Achilles, David, and Alexander through knights, samurai, admirals, and airmen, warriors have been icons of masculine glamour, exemplifying courage, prowess, and patriotic significance Beginning in the nineteenth century, warfare was one of the first contexts in which English speakers used the term glamour in its modern metaphorical sense Military heroes who give up their lives in the flush and excitement and glamour of battle, opined a US congressman in 1885, are sustained in the discharge of duty by the rush and conflict of physical forces, the hope of earthly glory and renown.20 A 1917 handbook on army paperwork was dedicated to the man behind the desk, the man who, being away from the din and glamor of battle, is usually denied popular favor, yet who clothes, feeds, pays, shelters, transports, and otherwise looks after the man behind the gun.21 Whether in warfare or business, logistics is the quintessential unglamorous but critical support activity European nations began World War I with a glamorous vision of war, only to be psychologically shattered by the realities of the trenches The experience changed the way people referred to the glamour of battle, treating it no longer as a positive quality but as a dangerous illusion In 1919, the British painter Paul Nash wrote that the purpose of The Menin Road, his bleak portrait of a desolate and blasted landscape, was to rob war of the last shred of glory , the last shine of glamour.22 Briefly conscripted in 1916, D H Lawrence lamented this terrible glamour of camaraderie, which is the glamour of Homer and of all militarism.23 An American writing in 1921 asked fellow veterans of the Great War, Are you going to tell your children the truth about what you endured, or gild your reminiscences with glamour that will make them want to have a merry war experience of their own 24 In the 1920s, pacifism, not battle, became glamorous For some audiences martial glamour endures Todays military recruitment videos are full of imagery uniting the contemporary glamour of technology with the ancient glamour of battle a paratrooper leaping from a confined plane into the open sky a commander issuing silent hand signals as troops move stealthily through a forest a jet rising gracefully from a carrier deck or swiftly crossing bare terrain silhouetted soldiers rappelling from a helicopter or down a mountainside screens glowing in a darkened command center Like classic Hollywood glamour photographs, these images often use sharp contrasts between light and darkness to heighten drama and veil individuals in mystery, encouraging viewers to project themselves into the picture These scenes bespeak a world of swift, decisive action, enduring camaraderie, perfect coordination, and meaningful exertion They glamorize military life Glamour is not limited to celebrity, wealth, or theatrical performance It is a powerful form of rhetoric that can sell just about anything As such, it is a far common experience and widely used sales tool than the short list of glamour industriesfilm, music, fashionsuggests We can find obvious glamour in sports, technology, tourism, the job market, and the stock market Glamour stock is even a term of art, the opposite of value stock It refers to a stock whose price represents an especially high multiple of the companys earnings, reflecting either rational prospects for future growth or delusionary fads These securities, the term suggests, may derive their allure from wishful thinking Glamour and excitement are not the same as a sound investment, warned a 2010 Wall Street Journal report on the initial public offering of electric car maker Tesla Motors Indeed the reverse is often the case.25 With their evocations of a new life in a new home, real estate promotions often traffic in a sort of off the shelf glamour, recycling visual tropes Consider two strikingly similar 2007 ads for high rise condominiums In the first, promoting the Metropolitan in Dallas, an attractive young woman in a short dress and high heels sits on her windowsill, her bare arms draped around one bent knee Her head is turned to look out at the nearby skyscrapers of downtown In the second, for Rector Square in Lower Manhattans Battery Park, a black clad young man assumes almost exactly the same pose From his window, he gazes across the water toward the Statue of Liberty Agency SaksEach ad offers multilayered glamour Glimpsing only their partial profiles, we project ourselves into the role of the young condo dwellers They invite us to imagine sharing their new life, being them or being with them And they in turn contemplate the scene beyond their windows and feel the pull of its glamourthe promise of a skylines mysteriously glistening windows or a rivers passage toward unknown destinations Although the two images are almost identical in composition, they are actually selling two different ideals The Metropolitan promises the future of the city, a bustling alternative to the suburban life typical of Dallas Rector Square, by contrast, offers tranquility, an escape from the noise, garbage cans, and graffiti of other Manhattan neighborhoods.26 The two ads evoke the different yearnings of different audiences Like any form of rhetoric, glamour depends for its success on a receptive audience But even when recognized as an illusion, it can be quite convincing Enticed by a travel brochure promising winter sun amidst the London gloom, the author Alain de Botton considers the ads manipulative allure Those responsible for the brochure had darkly intuited how easily their readers might be turned into prey by photographs whose power insulted the intelligence and contravened any notions of free will over exposed photographs of palm trees, clear skies, and white beaches Readers who would have been capable of skepticism and prudence in other areas of their lives reverted in contact with these elements to a primordial innocence and optimism I resolved to travel to the island of Barbados.27 The brochures images turn a vague dissatisfaction with gray skies and damp days into a yearning for happiness, for rebirth, for a sustained version of the innocence and optimism the photos momentarily evoke An escape to Barbados, the brochure suggests enticingly, is the means by which those emotions can be achieved By focusing imaginative yearnings, glamour motivates not just momentary fantasies but real world action buying vacations and dresses, sports cars and condos moving to new cities and pursuing new careers even electing presidents The most striking recent exemplar of glamour was not a movie star or a fashion plate but a presidential candidate Barack Obama in 2008.Getty Images Congressional QuarterlyThe most striking recent exemplar of glamour was not, in fact, a movie star or fashion plate but a political candidate Barack Obama in 2008.28 With its stylized portraits of the candidate gazing upward and its logo featuring a road stretching toward the horizon, the iconography of Obamas first presidential campaign was classically glamorous The Onion satirized the candidates many glamorous photographs in a story headlined Obama Practices Looking Off into Future Pose.29 The source of the candidates glamour was not merely his campaigns graphic design, however, but the persona those images signified Like John Kennedy in 1960, Obama combined youth, vigor, and good looks with the promise of political change Like Kennedy and Ronald Reagan, another glamorous president , the candidate was both charming and self contained While Kennedys wealth set him apart, Obamas mystery stemmed from his exotic backgroundan international upbringing and biracial ethnicity that defied conventional categories and distanced him from humdrum American life He was glamorous because he was different, and his differences mirrored his audiences aspirations for the country The candidate also had little national record, allowing supporters to project diverse political yearnings onto him Even well informed observers couldnt agree on whether Obama was a full blown leftist or a market oriented centrist Barack has become a kind of human Rorschach test, said his friend Cassandra Butts during the 2008 race People see in him what they want to see.30 The press corps, wrote Washington Post media critic Howard Kurtz early in the campaign, sees the man as an empty vessel into which its fondest hopes can be projected.31 Obamas call for a broad majority of AmericansDemocrats, Republicans, and independents of goodwillwho are re engaged in the project of national renewal invited the audience to entertain their own fantasies of what national renewal would look like.32 Obamas promise of hope and change meant different things to different people Jessica SampleAn asset in a campaign, glamour can make it difficult to govern A president must make decisions, and any specific action will disappointand potentially alienatesupporters who disagree Nor is governing ever as easy and conflict free as the campaign dream Disillusionment is inevitable In his 2012 reelection campaign, Obama rallied his base with fear of his opponents than hope for his second term The 2004 version of Barack Obama, who captured the nation with a dazzling speech about unity and went on to win the presidency on a message of hope, died on Monday He was 8 years old, wrote ABC News reporter Matt Negrin in May 2012.33 As his mystery and grace dissipated, so did Obamas glamour As a psychological phenomenon and rhetorical tool, glamour is like humor It is an imaginative experience in which communication and association create a recognizably consistent emotional response With glamour the response is an enjoyable pang of projection, admiration, and longing Glamour, writes the essayist Jim Lewis, offers us a glimpse into another world, perfect than this one, and for that moment, enchantment swirls around us And then it is gone again.34 Glamour may be as universal as humor though some people have a keener sense of glamour than others , but its manifestations vary from person to person, culture to culture, and era to era In her study of glamour in mid twentieth century American buildings, the architectural historian Alice Friedman draws one such contrast For one group of 1950s Americans, she suggests, ideas about glamour came from Hollywood and rock n roll, clustering around the iconic images of such celebrities as Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, and James Dean Others rejected those heroes, preferring to focus onand emulatethe aura of the classy cosmopolitans like Grace Kelly, Audrey Hepburn, and Cary Grant, whose Americanness or that of the characters they played in the movies was tinged with European sophistication and upper class charm.35 Grace Kelly and Cary Grant in To Catch a Thief 1955 For many Americans in the 1950s, their cosmopolitan polish was the epitome of glamour.Photofest Reinfried MarassEven within the same culture, different audiences have different ideals and desires, and therefore resonate to different images Some people find glamour in elegant simplicity others, in baroque excess Some glamorize a whirl of parties others, the solitude of a mountain retreat For every military recruiting poster, there is a bumper sticker inviting viewers to Visualize World Peace Declaring Thats not glamorous is akin to saying, Thats not funny Glamour is subjective It must be defined not by the critics taste but by the audiences reaction, using as clues the elements that generate the response Some versions of glamour, emphasizing wealth, beauty, and sex appeal, are especially widespread and enduring But they are neither necessary nor sufficient to the experience, any than plays on words or scatological jokes are essential to humor As for styles, to equate beaded gowns or mirrored furniture with glamour is like treating a pratfall or a Monty Python routine as the definition of humor Its subjective nature can make detecting glamour tricky Like an old joke, an image a previous generation found glamorous may fall flat, or even become incomprehensible, to a new audience The decline of one kind of glamour, whether of nineteenth century Parisian grandes dames or of the mid twentieth century Rat Pack, often presages the rise of another kind, representing different values or aspirations the glamour of bohemian cafs or of rock stars A geishas glamour meant one thing in the nineteenth century, when geisha were chic style setters, and another after the 1920s, when they became custodians of tradition In mid twentieth century America, a mink coat was the glamorous representation of feminine indulgence A half century later, it has been replaced by ubiquitous photos of hot stone massages Model in Silverblue Mink, 1956, copyright Virginia Thoren, courtesy of June Bateman Fine Art and the Virginia Thoren Collection at the Pratt Institute LibrariesThrough much of the twentieth century, middle Americans felt a lack of cosmopolitanism, sophistication, and style They dreamed of Paris Today, their counterparts yearn instead for pleasure and simplicity good, fresh food in a beautiful place without too much bustle So now they dream of Italy, minus the inefficiencies and frustrations of real Italian life and, of course, without all the other tourists Witness the popularity of Tuscan architecture and dcor and of Under the Tuscan Sun and Eat, Pray, Love, both of which were on the New York Times best seller list for years.36 Once, studying abroad meant a semester or two in Paris Today Italy is the second most popular destination for American college students, after the United Kingdom, having passed Spain in 200203 France is a distant fourth and if current trends continue will soon be replaced by China.37 Glamour is like humor in another way examine its object too closely and youre likely to spoil the effect Just as humor relies on surprise, glamour requires distance A glamorous image appeals to our desires without becoming explicit, lest too much information break the spell In its blend of accessibility and distance, glamour is neither transparent nor opaque It is translucent It invites just enough familiarity to engage the imagination, allowing scope for the viewers own fantasies But inquiring minds want to know, as the old tabloid slogan put it, so the audience itself often destroys the very glamour it loves The were drawn to a glamorous person, place, or thing, the we seek to fill in the details or to experience the thing itself We discover the sports heros temper and steroid use, the politicians spin machine and unsavory allies, the fairy tale princesss bulimia and troubled marriage, the movie stars plastic surgeries and brainless enthusiasms When young fan Jane Wilkie toured RKO Studios in 1940, she was disillusioned to see Ginger Rogers chewing gumat least two sticks, very possibly a five packwith considerable gusto For me, Wrigley struck down an idol, she recalled decades later It hadnt occurred to me that movie stars chewed gum, wheezed with head colds, or used the john.38 Experience also turns the inspiring into the ordinary Skyscrapers become nothing than buildings, jets merely a way to get places, your dream job just your job Only two years after challenging the country to land a man on the moon, President Kennedy was already worrying that the space program had lost its glamour.39 At best, familiarity replaces glamour with enjoyment, affection, or sympathy At worst, knowledge leads to cynicism and disappointment We discover the flaws obscured in the idealized images Venice is glamorous, until the breeze off the Adriatic brings in the smell of rotting fish and raw sewage, at which point it is like Hoboken with better architecture, says a disillusioned visitor.40 This process produces one of glamours most puzzling qualities its fragility Excited fashion headlines often proclaim Glamour is back without explaining why it vanished in the first place Someone is always trying to restore glamour to something or some place to New York, Monte Carlo, Palm Springs, Shanghai, Miami Beach, or Budapest to engineering, the space program, or high energy particle physics to resorts, cruises, department stores, or air travel.41 Yet those efforts often fail If we enjoy glamour so much, why cant we have it, like candlelight or satin dresses, whenever we want Why isnt glamour, like luxury, something money can buy The reason lies in the nature of glamour It is not a product or style but a form of communication and persuasion It depends on maintaining exactly the right relationship between object and audience, imagination and desire Glamour is fragile because perceptions change Glamour creates a reality distortion fieldSilicon Valleys capsule description of Steve Jobss persuasive magicand because of its artifice, it is always suspect The real puzzle is not why glamour keeps disappearing but why it survives at all Its mystery and grace violate our self proclaimed commitment to honesty, transparency, comfort, realism, practicality, even overt sexuality Reviewers praise filmmakers and authors for not glamorizing their subjects Social critics denounce movies that glamorize violence or cigarette smoking Whether selling refrigerators or revolution, glamour is an alluring form of propaganda and not entirely to be trusted We may have lost our faith in literal enchantments, but we still know glamour can be perilous Dorothy Jordan, photographed by George Hurrell All of us glamorize everything, because art demands selection.Courtesy of Pancho Barnes Trust Estate Archive, Estate of George HurrellWhen Catholic liturgy asks the faithful to reject the glamour of evil, worshippers are vowing to see evil for what it is and not, like Eve contemplating the forbidden fruit, to let themselves fall for an attractive appearance and the promise of desire fulfilled But we can abjure the glamour of evil without declaring the evil of glamour Simply to condemn glamour as a lie is to damn imagination Every innovation requires perceiving a world different from the one that exists, and all art demands selection All of us glamorize everything, including the documentaries sic who glamorize filth and squalor, said the Hollywood photographer George Hurrell, defending the glamour of his studio era portraits Its a question of emphasizing the dirt or the beautythe viewpoint you assume when you start out.42 Emphasizing the squalor and hiding the beauty may be regarded as serious than creating a glamorous image, but it is equally deceptive There is something civilized, and distinctly human, about glamour It is, like any form of rhetoric, a humane art of persuasion If glamour is magic, if its really about casting a spell, one should happily confront the manipulation of it all, advises the fashion designer Isaac Mizrahi Its adult to manipulate and only human.43 A scene in the classic film Queen Christina 1933 captures the eternal dilemma Disguised as a young man, the queen Greta Garbo encounters the Spanish ambassador Antonio John Gilbert in a rural tavern Discussing their countrymens different approaches to courtship, Christina pronounces the elaborate Spanish rituals glamorous, and yet somewhat mechanical Christina Evidently you Spaniards make too much fuss about a simple, elemental thing like love We Swedes are direct Antonio Why, thats civilizationto disguise the elemental with the glamorous By using the word disguise, Antonio acknowledges that glamour is a falsehood, an illusion But, he declares, civilization itself is defined by such illusionsby art and artifice, customs and manners To Antonio, disguising the elemental is a great achievement, not a base fraud Glamour makes desire than an animal impulse Its purpose is not simply to camouflage sexual passion but, by bestowing meaning upon it, to transform it into something enduring and significant Antonio A great love has to be nourished, has to be Christina A great love Antonio Dont you believe in its possibility Christina In its possibility, yes, but not in its existence A great love, a perfect love, is an illusion It is the golden fable of which we all dream But in ordinary life, it doesnt happen In ordinary life, one must be content with less Glamour versus realism, civilization versus directness, golden fables versus ordinary life, the pursuit of love versus contentment with lesswhich should we choose That neither is obviously wrong only makes the question difficult Yet even in our wised up age, we do not want a world bereft of glamours magic For all its dangers, glamour is a special art We value not only its transient pleasures but also the inspiration and insight it provides Glamour may be an illusion, but it reveals the truth about what we desire and, sometimes, what we can become Icon THE AVIATOR From the days of biplanes and silk scarves, the aviator has been an archetype of masculine glamour, combining youth, daring, grace, bravery, technical mastery, sexual allure, and forward looking modernity Even the practical costume of flight suit, helmet, goggles, orthat touchstone of glamoursunglasses seems calculated to heighten aviators glamour, holding viewers at an intriguing distance.1 World War I aces, writes the historian Robert Wohl, exemplified purely than any other figure of their time what it meant to be a man.2 That most aces died young only added to their ageless allure After World War I, British fighter pilots were called glamour boys The term was both admiring and pejorative, particularly among other military men It drew a contrast between the celebrated knights of the air and the anonymous foot soldiers and support crews below.3 Charles Lindbergh You are that dream self we all long to be, wrote a fan.Library of CongressThe twentieth centurys most glamorous aviator, however, was a civilian Charles Lindbergh, whose allure after his 1927 solo flight from New York to Paris was as potent as any movie stars You are that dream self we all long to be, declared a fan.4 What audiences saw in the young flier depended on their own ideals To his American public, the clean cut young man with a pioneering spirit embodied the best of their countrys heritage His discipline and midwestern modesty combined youth with the values of an earlier time, redeeming the disillusioned and decadent Jazz Age You symbolize our splendid, secret dreams Ideals of manhood, virtues we hold dear, another devotee versified.5 In France, where Lindberghs grace and deference charmed the public, the praise took on local coloration Air force officer and poet Pierre Weiss praised the aviators moral elegance and intellectual refinement, contrasting him with a second class hero, with a cigarette hanging from his mouththe stereotypical American, in other words Lindberghs achievement, Weiss wrote, had inspired the French masses to re discover themselves a people who bear in their hearts a desire for the infinite.6 Although Lindberghs feat clearly resonated with his audiences preexisting yearnings, his profile also benefited from deliberate media craftsmanship The fliers image sold newspapers and magazines, childrens books and sheet music, decorative textiles and souvenir spoons He was Time magazines first Man of the Year When Lindbergh published his account of his flight, We, only two months after landing in Paris, the book became an immediate best seller That success led publisher G P Putnam to look for another opportunity to capitalize on aviator glamour Putnam found his new icon in Amelia Earhart, who in early photos was deliberately styled to look like Lindbergh Lady Lindy gave aviation a feminine face, providing an alluring yet similarly wholesome image of the modern woman Although not the best female flier, nor even the most beautiful, Earhart, who later married Putnam, was surely the most glamorous The mystery of her 1937 disappearance only added to her mystique.7 Col Benjamin O Davis, the commanding officer of the 332nd Fighter Group, better known as the Tuskegee Airmen, and Edward C Gleed, group operations officer, at their base in Ramitelli, Italy, March 1945.Toni Frissell Collection, Library of CongressThe Tuskegee Airmen, here photographed by Toni Frissell in a classic skyward looking pose, claimed the aviators glamour for African Americans Of the many black units in World War II, they are the most famous Although their story was largely unknown to white Americans before a star filled 1995 HBO movie, they were a source of pride for other blacks during the war The airmen, the historian J Todd Moye suggests, were among the first Americans to imagine the kind of racially integrated society that most Americans now take for granted.8 Any black military unit might have played that role, but the aura of aviation gave the airmens assertion of competent equality a particular punch Given the power of aviator glamour in the early twentieth century, it inevitably became a tool for despotic political purposes as well Benito Mussolini learned to fly after World War I, and throughout his career he linked aviation with the future of Italyand with his personal image A celebratory 1936 biography styled him Mussolini Aviatore, and in 1938 the Futurist painter Alfredo Gauro Ambrosi created an aeroportrait of the dictators helmeted head superimposed on a stylized vision of Rome from the air All good citizens, all devoted citizens must follow with profound feeling the development of Italian wings, Mussolini declared in 1923.9 A decade later, Italo Balbo, the Fascist governments marshal of the air force, led a squadron of twenty five seaplanes on a transatlantic flight, landing to enormous acclaim in Chicago for the Century of Progress Worlds Fair A monument marking the occasion still stands near the shores of Lake Michigan, and Balbo Drive still runs through the South Loop.10 For Italians, writes Wohl, fascism was synonymous with flying.11 While Italian images drew on the abstractions of Futurism, the modernist movement emphasizing newness, technology, and speed, Soviet propaganda posters appropriated the conventions of Russias traditional religious arttransforming aviators into literal icons Instead of Christ ringed by an almond shaped halo, or mandorla, posters would show a flight suited pilot against a similarly angled Soviet star These iconic Soviet aviators were neither reckless aces nor individualistic Lindberghs What Soviet authorities offered up is a vision of the glamorous aviator in which the aviator is disciplined, explains the historian Scott W Palmer, and his work is undertaken in service of a larger, collective mission, which is to construct socialism.12 Contemporary politicians still occasionally try to tap into aviator glamoura flight suited George W Bush on an aircraft carrier declaring mission accomplished in Iraq, for instance, or John McCains presidential campaigns using portraits of the candidate as a handsome young flier But these ill fated examples notwithstanding, for the past several decades aviator glamour has mostly been confined to the movies The laconic ease of Sam Shepards Chuck Yeager in The Right Stuff 1983 , the cocky bravado of Tom Cruises Maverick in Top Gun 1986 , and the wisecracking aplomb of Will Smiths Steve Hiller in Independence Day 1996 all partake of the same essential grace So does Denzel Washingtons alcoholic Whip Whitaker in Flight 2012 , as he executes an impossible maneuver to save his plane and later struts down the hall to face a board of inquiry, with his aviator shadesand aviators aurahiding the signs of his late night binge These unflappable men are masters of their fates, of their machines, of the air itself They are the knights of the sky, Les chevaliers du ciel, the title of a 2005 French action film.13 As Whip Whitakers secret vices suggest, however, even in the movies, the aviators glamour has become suspect In Catch Me If You Can 2002 and The Aviator 2004 , Leonardo DiCaprio portrays two cautionary versions of the archetype the con man and the perfectionist Pretending to be a pilot in Catch Me If You Can, his Frank Abagnale Jr uses aviations glamorous aura to distract his marks Dressed in a pilots uniform, he seduces women and scores free plane rides, cons bank clerks into cashing fake payroll checks, and, in one of the films most memorable scenes, walks through an airport surrounded by women hes recruited to take glamorous, but phony, jobs as Pan Am stewardesses Distracted by the pretty women, the cops miss the man theyve come to arrest In The Aviator, DiCaprios Howard Hughes demands aircraft with bodies so smooth he cannot feel a single rivet The obsession that makes Hughes a great engineer proves his fatal flaw, however He goes mad because he cannot abide the real worlds imperfections Perhaps, the film hints, movie stars understand the limits of glamours illusions better than engineering geniuses Nothings clean, Howard, Ava Gardner Kate Beckinsale tells him, but we do our best Even in the movies, the aviators glamour has become suspect.PhotofestIcon SMOKING Smoking used to be glamorous, the cigarette an icon of sophistication, power, sex, art, and, to the young, all the grand and mysterious privileges of adulthood It was a time when brilliant, brooding professors lectured while holding unfiltered cigarettes in stained fingers, when girls wearing cashmere sweater sets gestured gracefully with extra longs, when handsome fraternity boys clutched a can of beer in one hand and a cigarette in the other I wanted to know what they all knew, and for sure, I wanted one of those boys, recalls an unapologetic smoker So I practiced smoking.1 Smoking gave the awkward something to do with their hands and the graceful an extension of their grace Like a folding fan, a plume of cigarette smoke simultaneously concealed and called attention to the smoker A cigarette amplified gestures and emphasized the mouth Depending on the smoker and the audience, it could represent any number of ideals and aspirations For nineteenth century bohemians, the historian Elizabeth Wilson writes, Smoking orchestrated time, gave it a rhythm, punctuated talk, theatrically mimed both masculinity and femininity, was the intellectuals essential accessory, was also an erotic gesture, enhancing the mystery of some unknown drinker seated at her table, veiled in a bluish haze.2 Humphrey Bogart lights Lauren Bacalls cigarette in To Have and Have Not 1944 a sign of intimacy, suggesting both sex and solicitude.PhotofestIn Franklin Roosevelts upturned holder, a cigarette spoke of optimism and progress In the Marlboro Mans rugged hands, it represented masculine independence James Deans cigarette symbolized rebellion, Marlene Dietrichs was all about seduction, and a Shanghai calendar girls epitomized modern femininity Ayn Rand romanticized smoking as an emblem of creative thought and technological dominance I like to think of fire held in a mans hand Fire, a dangerous force, tamed at his fingertips When a man thinks, there is a spot of fire alive in his mindand it is proper that he should have the burning point of a cigarette as his one expression.3 Lighting a lovers cigarette was a sign of intimacy, suggesting both sex and solicitude Five decades of scientific evidence and antismoking propaganda have largely punctured the glamour of smoking It has become that dirty habit that kills people I miss my lung, says the cowboy on a Marlboroesque antismoking billboard Smokers are those poor addicts huddling next to their office buildings on cold, wet daysthe antithesis of grace But a trace of glamour remains As and places forbid smoking, observes the British journalist Simon Mills, lit cigarettes have become the markers of heroic, sexy social outlaws The interior designer and socialite Nicky Haslam, who lights but doesnt inhale, calls the practice deliciously illicit.4 Perhaps, suggests the essayist Katie Roiphe, the TV show Mad Men owes some of its cult appeal to the characters conspicuous smoking, which provides an alluring contrast to the health conscious discipline of todays young professionals The show, she writes, offers the glamour of spectacularly messy, self destructive behavior to our relatively staid and enlightened times.5 In the movies, smoking has come to symbolize a cool contempt for social conventions and bourgeois rules Mob moll Uma Thurman smokes in Pulp Fiction 1994 , as does femme fatale Sharon Stone in her infamous scene in Basic Instinct 1992 Theres no smoking in here, a policeman tells her as she sits down to face interrogation Uninhibited, unintimidated, and undeterred, she replies, What are you gonna do Arrest me for smoking Playing up the bad girl theme, in 2011 the fashion designer Nicola Formichetti sent the pop star Lady Gaga down his runway smoking, in a typical bit of Gaga spectacle.6 The real rebel glamour came a few days later, however, when the supermodel Kate Moss, absent from the runway for seven years, strutted down the Louis Vuitton catwalk on the UKs National No Smoking Day The moment Kate Moss sashayed across the room in hotpants and high heels, puffing on a cigarette, Jess Cartner Morley, the Guardians fashion editor declared, there was no longer any doubt who the star of this show was.7 Femme fatale Sharon Stone lights up in Basic Instinct 1992 What are you gonna do Arrest me for smoking PhotofestTHE POWER OF GLAMOUR is another reminder why Virginia Postrel is one of our keenest cultural observers and most important social thinkers Using lively prose, fascinating images, and examples that range from Alexander the Great to Kate Moss, Postrel brings to life an elusive subject This book is essential reading for people in advertising, marketing, politics, and entertainment as well as for anyone interested in seeing our culture with fresh eyes Daniel H Pink, author of TO SELL IS HUMAN and A WHOLE NEW MIND Postrel offers a thoroughly researched, analytical, illustrated view on the characteristics, both keen and subtle, that qualify an object, person, event or location as glamorousPostrel cites innumerable sources, weaving quotations and vignettes into each of her chapters, and the result is exhaustive and wholly entertaining For those interested in the evolution of glamour over the ages, as well as readers with a stake in marketing, this is a must read Kirkus Postrels cleareyed and exhaustive analysis looks not only at the history of glamour, but at how it works Postrel seems to be the kind of public intellectual for whom the TED Talk seems to have been invented The New York Times Book Review The Power of When Dr Breus has succeeded in making the complex science chronobiology accessible and engaging for all readers Whether you re looking to improve your relationships, get a raise at work, or simply lead fulfilling life, The When is guidebook ve been waiting Quiz Discover Right Time Do What Chronotype Every person master biological clock ticking away inside their brain, dozens smaller clocks throughout his her body Power two Wikipedia In mathematics, power number form n where an integer, ie result exponentiation with as base integer exponent context only integers are considered, restricted non negative values, so we have multiplied by itself certain times Calculate any i Square Root WebMath Calculate learning about imaginary numbers, frequently need figure out how This page will show do this A Each day, associations create positive Association Spotlight Shines on ASAE Silver Award Winners Programs Advance Their Industries Professions proud recognize following winners efforts develop No Psychology Today Wielded wisely, instrument integrity shield against exploitation It often takes courage say hard receive Powers Ten YouTube Aug , Powers us adventure magnitudes Starting picnic lakeside Chicago, famous film transports outer edges universe engages potential voters via ground canvassing concentrated Florida across country, through digital platforms campaign engages, educates, assists eligible they are, shows them value voting, helps register when possible, advocate others Vitality I lost pounds past year am now lower end my healthy BMI range Angie K Vitality Member most difficult part was staying motivated beginning but finally got into it, living eating became good habit, rather than chore Exponents says many use multiplication twice multiplication, words could be called second power, squared also Indices Some examples Definition Merriam Webster Choose Synonym Noun authority, jurisdiction, control, command, sway, dominion mean right govern rule determine implies possession ability wield force, influence mold public opinion authority specific purpose within specified limits unit video Khan Academy If behind web filter, please make sure that domainskastatic andkasandbox unblocked definition Free Dictionary Power, like desolating pestilence, pollutes whatever it touches Percy Bysshe Shelley Whatever replaces old English whate er lightning, injures before its warning Pedro Calderon de la Barca diamond, dazzles beholder, wearer Charles Caleb Colton Define usually measured watts especially electrical horsepower mechanical For path conducting current, such component electric circuit, P VI, dissipated along path, V voltage current Watch learn chronotype, discover Michael Breus, PhD J PhD, clinical psychologist both diplomate American Board Sleep Medicine fellow Academy Book Secret Official Website Without there wouldn t single human being planet discovery, invention, creation comes from Perfect health, incredible career love, life filled happiness, money be, do, Nov And strategy business Mar Joshua Cooper Ramo s book Seventh Sense Fortune, Survival Age Networks Hachette, provides another example posits essence our highly interconnected, networked world concentration distribution AND uwec Dec means Blugolds aren defined solely one discipline profession We challenge students, faculty staff explore multiple passions Because broad educational approach, sum partsThe Glamour Longing Art Visual Virginia Postrel columnist Bloomberg View regular contributor Wall Street Journal, Atlantic, New York Times, ForbesFormerly editor Reason magazine, she author Substance Style Future Its EnemiesShe teaches special seminar glamour Branding program School Arts Glamour presentation impression attraction fascination particularly luxurious elegant appearance creates, which intensifies reality Typically, person, event, location, technology, product piece clothing can glamorous add originally referred magic spell, illusion said cast witches Cathy Young Y Files Welcome website writer journalist Cathy Here find columns Boston Globe Reason, articles other publications, information books, well new blog write wide variety topics, gender issues academic politics debate over religion secularism America struggle democracy Communist legacy Vigor Vigor force growth matter organism, plant active effective legal validity Genius genius who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality genres originality, typically degree associated achievement advances domain knowledgeDespite presence scholars subjects history, geniuses shown high achievements kind activity Instapundit Blog Archive HIGHER EDUCATION BUBBLE UPDATE, LEGAL EDITION LSAT Adopts Different Gender Identity Options GRE Only Has Two So does law schools started accepting Sanctification Sanctification Recent Examples Web church style cables ritually cut very absence symbol sanctification Postrel, WIRED, Making Gadgets Wireless Conceals Our Dependence Them, These sentences selected automatically various online news sources reflect usage word LEMMINGS Democrats Follow Bernie Sanders Off PJ Media LEMMINGS Cliff Matthew Continetti Medicare All Act would repeal Obamacare, private insurance, , Apple, Perils Vertical Integration Forbes Apr planning buy rights archive titles books bid boost margins cutting middle men publishing houses whose sells Economic Principals weekly column economics politics, formerly Globe, independent since About Economic Principals boston globe, david warsh, proprietor Philosophy Religion Friesian School Philosophy Audi Israhel Dominus Deus noster unus est Hear, O Israel, LORD God, One Deuteronomy Xenophanes whole heaven, God Punctuation, Quotation Marks, Footnotes Volokh few thoughts perhaps helpful review editors authors what customary publications Added My sense journals, speak confidence custom Client List Wylie Agency Valencia Fatin Abbas Henry Abbott King Abdullah II Elliott Abrams Chinua Achebe Estate Ken Adam Chimamanda Adichie Adonis James Agee Trust Lessons Total Loss Valuation Conspiracy As VC know, car accident weeks ago consequence, received wealth solicitations lawyers chiropractors learned total loss valuation works practice insurance company decides vehicle not worth repairing should scrapped always conform relevant requirements The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion (English Edition)

 

    • The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion (English Edition)
    • 3.1
    • 253
    • Format Kindle
    • 288 pages
    • Virginia Postrel
    • Anglais
    • 13 December 2017

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